PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: a new in situ technique for stress assessment in scleractinian corals, used to examine the effects of cyanide from cyanide fishing

Jones, RJ, Kildea, T and Hoegh-Guldberg, O (1999) PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: a new in situ technique for stress assessment in scleractinian corals, used to examine the effects of cyanide from cyanide fishing. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38 10: 864-874. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)90160-6


Author Jones, RJ
Kildea, T
Hoegh-Guldberg, O
Title PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: a new in situ technique for stress assessment in scleractinian corals, used to examine the effects of cyanide from cyanide fishing
Journal name Marine Pollution Bulletin   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0025-326X
Publication date 1999-01-01
Year available 1999
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0025-326X(98)90160-6
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 38
Issue 10
Start page 864
End page 874
Total pages 11
Place of publication OXFORD
Publisher Elsevier BV
Language eng
Abstract Sodium cyanide is being used on reefs in the Asia-Pacific region to capture live fish for the aquarium industry, and to supply a rapidly growing, restaurant-based demand, The effects of cyanide on reef biota have not been fully explored. To investigate its effect on hard corals, we exposed small branch lips of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora aspera to cyanide concentrations estimated to occur during cyanide fishing. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques were used to examine photoinhibition and photosynthetic electron transport in the symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in the tissues of the corals, These measurements were made in situ and in real time using a recently developed submersible PAM fluorometer. In S. pistillata. exposure to cyanide resulted in an almost complete cessation in photosynthetic electron transport rate. Both species displayed marked decreases in the ratio of variable fluorescence (F-v) to maximal fluorescence (F-m) (dark-adapted F-v/F-m), following exposure to cyanide, signifying a decrease in photochemical efficiency. Dark-adapted F-v/F-m recovered to normal levels in similar to 6 d, although intense tissue discolouration, a phenomenon well-recognised as coral 'bleaching' was observed during this period, Bleaching was caused by loss of zooxanthellae from the coral tissues, a well-recognised sub-lethal stress response of corals. Using the technique of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis, corals exposed to cyanide did not show light activation of Calvin cycle enzymes and developed high levels of non-photochemical quenching (q(N)), signifying the photoprotective dissipation of excess light as heat, These features are symptomatic of the known properties of cyanide as an inhibitor of enzymes of the Calvin cycle. The results of this in situ study show that an impairment of zooxanthellar photosynthesis is; the site of cyanide-mediated toxicity, and is the cue that causes corals to release their symbiotic zooxanthellac following cyanide exposure. This study demonstrates the efficacy of PBM fluorometry as a new tool for in situ stress assessment in zooxanthellate scleractinian corals. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keyword Environmental Sciences
Marine & Freshwater Biology
Coral
Cyanide
Chemical Pollution
Photochemistry
Bleaching
Pollution Monitoring
Montastrea-annularis
Pocillopora-damicornis
Bleaching Event
Fluorescence
Photosynthesis
Reef
Zooxanthellae
Recovery
Photoinhibition
Respiration
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Centre for Marine Studies Publications
 
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Created: Mon, 13 Aug 2007, 21:28:43 EST