Rheological characterisation of thickened fluids under different temperature, pH and fat contents

Hadde, Enrico Karsten, Nicholson, Timothy Michael and Cichero, Julie Ann Yvette (2015) Rheological characterisation of thickened fluids under different temperature, pH and fat contents. Nutrition and Food Science, 45 2: 270-285. doi:10.1108/NFS-06-2014-0053

Author Hadde, Enrico Karsten
Nicholson, Timothy Michael
Cichero, Julie Ann Yvette
Title Rheological characterisation of thickened fluids under different temperature, pH and fat contents
Journal name Nutrition and Food Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0034-6659
Publication date 2015-01-01
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1108/NFS-06-2014-0053
Volume 45
Issue 2
Start page 270
End page 285
Total pages 16
Place of publication Bingley, United Kingdom
Publisher Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.
Formatted abstract
– The purpose of this paper was to examine the rheological characterisation of thickened water under different temperature and pH conditions and thickened milk with different fat contents.

– Beverages thickened with powdered thickeners are used in the medical management of individuals who suffer swallowing difficulties (dysphagia). Each individual requires a specific level of thickness to best meet the needs of their dysphagia. Although the level of thickness is defined, obtaining the correct consistency of thickened fluids is difficult. This is due to fluctuations associated with temperature and type of fluids to be thickened. Rheological characterisation of commercially available xanthan gum-based thickener was performed under different conditions of temperature, pH and fat contents.

– The viscosity and the yield stress of thickened water was found to be unaffected by pH. Similarly, temperature did not affect the viscosity at a high thickener concentration, although it did at lower concentration levels. Conversely, viscosity and yield stress increased as fat levels increased in thickened milk. Furthermore, thickened water took less than 2 minutes to reach equilibrium viscosity, while thickened milk required approximately 15 minutes to reach equilibrium viscosity.

Practical implications
– These findings have implications for the standing time required for different beverages before they are thickened to a consistency that has been deemed safe for the patient’s physiological needs. Additionally, it highlights that different liquid base substances required different amounts of thickener to achieve the same level of thickness.

– Findings from this study confirms and explores the variability of thickened fluids under different conditions of temperature, pH and fat content for the medical management of dysphagia.
Keyword Rheology
Thickened water
Thickened milk
Xanthan gum
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Chemical Engineering Publications
Official 2016 Collection
School of Pharmacy Publications
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