Living with genome instability: The adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts

Bai, Xiaodong, Zhang, Jianhua, Ewing, Adam, Miller, Sally A., Radek, Agnes Jancso, Shevchenko, Dmitriy V., Tsukerman, Kiryl, Walunas, Theresa, Lapidus, Alla, Campbell, John W. and Hogenhout, Saskia A. (2006) Living with genome instability: The adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts. Journal of Bacteriology, 188 10: 3682-3696. doi:10.1128/JB.188.10.3682-3696.2006

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Author Bai, Xiaodong
Zhang, Jianhua
Ewing, Adam
Miller, Sally A.
Radek, Agnes Jancso
Shevchenko, Dmitriy V.
Tsukerman, Kiryl
Walunas, Theresa
Lapidus, Alla
Campbell, John W.
Hogenhout, Saskia A.
Title Living with genome instability: The adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts
Journal name Journal of Bacteriology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0021-9193
1098-5530
Publication date 2006-01-01
Year available 2006
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1128/JB.188.10.3682-3696.2006
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 188
Issue 10
Start page 3682
End page 3696
Total pages 15
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher American Society for Microbiology
Language eng
Abstract Phytoplasmas ("Candidatus Phytoplasma," class Mollicutes) cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafboppers and psyllids. The 706,569-bp chromosome and four plasmids of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were sequenced and compared to the onion yellows phytoplasma strain M (OY-M) genome. The phytoplasmas have small repeat-rich genomes. This comparative analysis revealed that the repeated DNAs are organized into large clusters of potential mobile units (PMUs), which contain tra5 insertion sequences (ISs) and genes for specialized sigma factors and membrane proteins. So far, these PMUs appear to be unique to phytoplasmas. Compared to mycoplasmas, phytoplasmas lack several recombination and DNA modification functions, and therefore, phytoplasmas may use different mechanisms of recombination, likely involving PMUs, for the creation of variability, allowing phytoplasmas to adjust to the diverse environments of plants and insects. The irregular GC skews and the presence of ISs and large repeated sequences in the AY-WB and OY-M genomes are indicative of high genomic plasticity. Nevertheless, segments of ∼250 kb located between the lplA and glnQ genes are syntenic between the two phytoplasmas and contain the majority of the metabolic genes and no ISs. AY-WB appears to be further along in the reductive evolution process than OY-M. The AY-WB genome is ∼154 kb smaller than the OY-M genome, primarily as a result of fewer multicopy sequences, including PMUs. Furthermore, AY-WB lacks genes that are truncated and are part of incomplete pathways in OY-M. Copyright
Keyword Microbiology
Microbiology
MICROBIOLOGY
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Mater Research Institute-UQ (MRI-UQ)
 
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