Startle induces early initiation of classically conditioned postural responses

Campbell, A. D., Chua, R., Inglis, J. T. and Carpenter, M. G. (2012) Startle induces early initiation of classically conditioned postural responses. Journal of neurophysiology, 108 11: 2946-2956. doi:10.1152/jn.01157.2011

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Author Campbell, A. D.
Chua, R.
Inglis, J. T.
Carpenter, M. G.
Title Startle induces early initiation of classically conditioned postural responses
Journal name Journal of neurophysiology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-3077
Publication date 2012-12-01
Year available 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1152/jn.01157.2011
Volume 108
Issue 11
Start page 2946
End page 2956
Total pages 11
Place of publication Bethesda, MD United States
Publisher American Physiological Society
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) induce the early release of prepared motor responses. The current study used SAS, in conjunction with a classical conditioning paradigm, to examine advanced motor preparation of conditioned postural responses (PRs). After generalized startle responses were induced, standing posture was perturbed in 2 blocks of 15 Conditioning trials, where in each trial the onset of a nonstartling auditory cue [i.e., a conditioned stimulus (CS)] preceded a leftward support-surface translation. Upon completion of each block, a single trial was conducted. After block 1, a CS-Only trial was used to induce conditioned PRs in the absence of balance perturbations. After block 2, a post-Conditioning Startle trial that involved a CS subsequently followed by a SAS was used to examine motor preparation of conditioned PRs. PRs were quantified in terms of center of pressure displacements, ankle and hip kinematics, as well as surface electromyography of proximal and distal bilateral muscle pairs. Results indicated that repeated experience with cued balance perturbations led to PR conditioning and, more importantly, motor preparation of PRs. Conditioning was evidenced in biomechanical and electromyographic responses observed in CS-Only trials, as well as the progressive changes to evoked response parameters during repeated Conditioning trials. SAS presented in post-Conditioning Startle trials evoked early onsets of biomechanical and electromyographic responses, while preserving relative response parameters that were each distinct from generalized startle responses. These results provide important insight into both the consequences of using cues in dynamic postural control studies and the neural mechanisms governing PRs.
Keyword Center of pressure
Dynamic Posturography
Motor preparation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 10 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 02 Dec 2014, 20:23:29 EST by Sandrine Ducrot on behalf of School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences