Unfolding the secrets of coral-algal symbiosis

Rosic, Nedeljka, Ling, Edmund Yew Siang, Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth, Lee, Chin Hong, Kaniewska, Paulina, Edwards, David, Dove, Sophia and Hoegh-Guldberg, Ian Ove (2014) Unfolding the secrets of coral-algal symbiosis. The ISME Journal, 9 4: 844-856. doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.182


Author Rosic, Nedeljka
Ling, Edmund Yew Siang
Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth
Lee, Chin Hong
Kaniewska, Paulina
Edwards, David
Dove, Sophia
Hoegh-Guldberg, Ian Ove
Title Unfolding the secrets of coral-algal symbiosis
Journal name The ISME Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1751-7362
1751-7370
Publication date 2014-10-24
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1038/ismej.2014.182
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 9
Issue 4
Start page 844
End page 856
Total pages 13
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Language eng
Subject 2404 Microbiology
1105 Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Abstract Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with reef-building corals. Here we applied massively parallel Illumina sequencing to assess genetic similarity and diversity among four phylogenetically diverse dinoflagellate clades (A, B, C and D) that are commonly associated with corals. We obtained more than 30 000 predicted genes for each Symbiodinium clade, with a majority of the aligned transcripts corresponding to sequence data sets of symbiotic dinoflagellates and <2% of sequences having bacterial or other foreign origin. We report 1053 genes, orthologous among four Symbiodinium clades, that share a high level of sequence identity to known proteins from the SwissProt (SP) database. Approximately 80% of the transcripts aligning to the 1053 SP genes were unique to Symbiodinium species and did not align to other dinoflagellates and unrelated eukaryotic transcriptomes/genomes. Six pathways were common to all four Symbiodinium clades including the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways. The list of Symbiodinium transcripts common to all four clades included conserved genes such as heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90), calmodulin, actin and tubulin, several ribosomal, photosynthetic and cytochrome genes and chloroplast-based heme-containing cytochrome P450, involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls. Antioxidant genes, which are important in stress responses, were also preserved, as were a number of calcium-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases that may play a role in the establishment of symbiosis. Our findings disclose new knowledge about the genetic uniqueness of symbiotic dinoflagellates and provide a list of homologous genes important for the foundation of coral-algal symbiosis.
Formatted abstract
Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with reef-building corals. Here we applied massively parallel Illumina sequencing to assess genetic similarity and diversity among four phylogenetically diverse dinoflagellate clades (A, B, C and D) that are commonly associated with corals. We obtained more than 30 000 predicted genes for each Symbiodinium clade, with a majority of the aligned transcripts corresponding to sequence data sets of symbiotic dinoflagellates and <2% of sequences having bacterial or other foreign origin. We report 1053 genes, orthologous among four Symbiodinium clades, that share a high level of sequence identity to known proteins from the SwissProt (SP) database. Approximately 80% of the transcripts aligning to the 1053 SP genes were unique to Symbiodinium species and did not align to other dinoflagellates and unrelated eukaryotic transcriptomes/genomes. Six pathways were common to all four Symbiodinium clades including the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways. The list of Symbiodinium transcripts common to all four clades included conserved genes such as heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90), calmodulin, actin and tubulin, several ribosomal, photosynthetic and cytochrome genes and chloroplast-based heme-containing cytochrome P450, involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls. Antioxidant genes, which are important in stress responses, were also preserved, as were a number of calcium-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases that may play a role in the establishment of symbiosis. Our findings disclose new knowledge about the genetic uniqueness of symbiotic dinoflagellates and provide a list of homologous genes important for the foundation of coral–algal symbiosis.
Keyword Ecology
Microbiology
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Microbiology
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID DE120101412
CE0561435
LP0989200
Institutional Status UQ

 
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Created: Sun, 26 Oct 2014, 20:44:50 EST by Ms Nela Rosic on behalf of School of Biological Sciences