Age as a determinant of phosphate flame retardant exposure of the Australian population and identification of novel urinary PFR metabolites

Van den Eede, Nele, Heffernan, Amy L., Aylward, Lesa L., Hobson, Peter, Neels, Hugo, Mueller, Jochen F. and Covaci, Adrian (2015) Age as a determinant of phosphate flame retardant exposure of the Australian population and identification of novel urinary PFR metabolites. Environment International, 74 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.09.005


Author Van den Eede, Nele
Heffernan, Amy L.
Aylward, Lesa L.
Hobson, Peter
Neels, Hugo
Mueller, Jochen F.
Covaci, Adrian
Title Age as a determinant of phosphate flame retardant exposure of the Australian population and identification of novel urinary PFR metabolites
Journal name Environment International   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0160-4120
1873-6750
Publication date 2015-01-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.envint.2014.09.005
Volume 74
Start page 1
End page 8
Total pages 8
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon
Language eng
Abstract The demand for alternative flame retardant materials such as phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) is increasing, although little is known of their possible effects on human health and development. To date, no information on the exposure of children or general Australian population to PFRs is available. The objectives of this study were to characterize the average levels and age-related patterns of PFR metabolites in urine in the general Australian population and to identify novel hydroxylated PFR metabolites in urine. Surplus pathology urine samples from Queensland, Australia were stratified and pooled by age and sex (3224 individuals aged 0 to 75 years into 95 pools) according to two different pooling strategies at two different time periods. Samples were analyzed by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry following enzymatic treatment. Nine PFR metabolites were measured in the Australian population, including the first report of a hydroxylated metabolite of TCIPP (BCIPHIPP). Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), BCIPHIPP and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) were detected in > 95% of samples. DPHP, a metabolite of aryl-PFRs, was found in several samples at levels which were one order of magnitude higher than previously reported (up to 730 ng/mL). Weighted linear regression revealed a significant negative association between log-normalized BDCIPP and DPHP levels and age (p < 0.001). Significantly greater levels of BDCIPP and DPHP were found in children's urine compared with adults, suggesting higher exposure to PFRs in young children. BCIPHIPP was identified for inclusion in future PFR biomonitoring studies.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Available online 29 September 2014

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2015 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 43 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 48 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Wed, 22 Oct 2014, 01:02:59 EST by Christopher O'Keefe on behalf of Queensland Brain Institute