Mechanism of West Nile virus neuroinvasion: a critical appraisal

Suen, Willy W., Prow, Natalie A., Hall, Roy A. and Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle (2014) Mechanism of West Nile virus neuroinvasion: a critical appraisal. Viruses, 6 7: 2796-2825. doi:10.3390/v6072796

Author Suen, Willy W.
Prow, Natalie A.
Hall, Roy A.
Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle
Title Mechanism of West Nile virus neuroinvasion: a critical appraisal
Journal name Viruses   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1999-4915
Publication date 2014-07-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.3390/v6072796
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 6
Issue 7
Start page 2796
End page 2825
Total pages 30
Publisher MDPI AG
Language eng
Formatted abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important emerging neurotropic virus, responsible for increasingly severe encephalitis outbreaks in humans and horses worldwide. However, the mechanism by which the virus gains entry to the brain (neuroinvasion) remains poorly understood. Hypotheses of hematogenous and transneural entry have been proposed for WNV neuroinvasion, which revolve mainly around the concepts of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and retrograde axonal transport, respectively. However, an over‑representation of in vitro studies without adequate in vivo validation continues to obscure our understanding of the mechanism(s). Furthermore, WNV infection in the current rodent models does not generate a similar viremia and character of CNS infection, as seen in the common target hosts, humans and horses. These differences ultimately question the applicability of rodent models for pathogenesis investigations. Finally, the role of several barriers against CNS insults, such as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the CSF-brain and the blood-spinal cord barriers, remain largely unexplored, highlighting the infancy of this field. In this review, a systematic and critical appraisal of the current evidence relevant to the possible mechanism(s) of WNV neuroinvasion is conducted.
Keyword West Nile virus
Blood-brain barrier
Blood-CSF barrier
CSF-brain barrier
Blood-spinal cord barrier
Retrograde axonal transport
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
School of Veterinary Science Publications
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