Tin pest in lead-free solders? Fundamental studies on the effect of impurities on phase transformation kinetics

Zeng, Guang, McDonald, Stuart D., Sweatman, Keith and Nogita, Kazuhiro (2014). Tin pest in lead-free solders? Fundamental studies on the effect of impurities on phase transformation kinetics. In: 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP). 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP 2014), Toyama, Japan, (135-139). 23-25 April 2014. doi:10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826677

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Author Zeng, Guang
McDonald, Stuart D.
Sweatman, Keith
Nogita, Kazuhiro
Title of paper Tin pest in lead-free solders? Fundamental studies on the effect of impurities on phase transformation kinetics
Conference name 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP 2014)
Conference location Toyama, Japan
Conference dates 23-25 April 2014
Convener Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Proceedings title 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP)
Place of Publication Piscataway, NJ, United States
Publisher IEEE
Publication Year 2014
Sub-type Fully published paper
DOI 10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826677
ISBN 9784904090107
Start page 135
End page 139
Total pages 5
Language eng
Abstract/Summary Tin is the main component of contemporary lead-free solders. Under equilibrium conditions, tin exists as either a tetragonal β-Sn) or cubic (α-Sn) allotrope at temperatures above and below approximately 13°C, respectively. The transformation from β to α, often referred to as `tin-pest' is poorly understood, despite the phenomena being documented over 100 years ago. Possibly because the high lead content in traditional solder alloys offers some protection against `tin-pest', this transformation has not been a priority in solder-related research. With the transition to lead-free solder alloys and the availability of modern analytical techniques there is both an increased need and opportunity to better understand the transformation. This research was conducted to investigate the phase-transformation kinetics of the β to α transformations in high-purity powdered tin using variable temperature synchrotron XRD analysis and electron microscopy. From the results, time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams were developed, with the intention of being used as a baseline for examining the effects of composition in current generation lead-free solders. The effects of pre-exisiting α-Sn and the impurity elements of Pb, Cu, Si and Ge on the β to α transformation kinetics were measured. α-Sn accelerates transformation kinetics, while all other elements tested delayed the transformation.
Keyword Lead-free solder
Phase transformation
Tin pest
Q-Index Code E1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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