Investigation of the freeze-lining formed in an industrial copper converting calcium ferrite slag

Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata, Jansson, Jani, Taskinen, Pekka, Hayes, Peter C. and Jak, Evgueni (2014) Investigation of the freeze-lining formed in an industrial copper converting calcium ferrite slag. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 45 3: 864-874. doi:10.1007/s11663-013-9987-5

Author Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata
Jansson, Jani
Taskinen, Pekka
Hayes, Peter C.
Jak, Evgueni
Title Investigation of the freeze-lining formed in an industrial copper converting calcium ferrite slag
Journal name Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1073-5615
Publication date 2014-06-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11663-013-9987-5
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 45
Issue 3
Start page 864
End page 874
Total pages 11
Place of publication New York, NY, United States
Publisher Springer New York
Language eng
Subject 3104 Condensed Matter Physics
2506 Metals and Alloys
2211 Mechanics of Materials
2505 Materials Chemistry
Formatted abstract
Pyrometallurgical coppermaking processes are operated under intensive reaction conditions; high process temperatures and vigorous bath agitation is used to increase the kinetics of reactions and to achieve high smelter throughput. Slag freeze-lining reactor wall protection is a widely used technology in coppermaking processes, such as flash smelting and converting reactors. Freeze-linings mitigate and resist the effects of thermal and chemical attack by aggressive slags. In this laboratory-based study, a water-cooled probe "cold finger" technique has been used to investigate freeze-lining formation with calcium ferrite slags in equilibrium with metallic copper; the slag composition reflects that used in the industrial copper flash converting furnace of Rio Tinto - Kennecott Utah Copper. The effects of probe immersion times on the thickness and microstructures in the freeze-lining deposits have been investigated. A range of complex oxide solutions and copper-containing phases have been found in the deposits. The phase assemblages formed from the industrial calcium ferrite slag in the steady-state deposit are very complex and information on the phase equilibria of the multi-component systems with addition of minor elements may not be available. Subsolidus and subliquidus phase equilibria in the Cu-Ca-Fe-O system at metallic copper saturation along with interpolated temperature across the deposit, microstructural changes and compositional trends in the phases in the deposit have been used to understand the formation and characteristics of the phases in the steady-state freeze-lining. Also, it has been shown that under steady-state conditions a dense sealing layer consisting primarily of the spinel primary phase is formed at the deposit/liquid interface; however, the interface temperature is below the liquidus temperature. The findings of the study have potentially important implications for the operation of the converting furnace and the design of freeze linings in metallurgical systems.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article published online November 9, 2013.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Chemical Engineering Publications
Official 2015 Collection
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 6 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 5 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Tue, 24 Jun 2014, 13:11:16 EST by System User on behalf of School of Chemical Engineering