Anthropogenic-based regional-scale factors most consistently explain plot-level exotic diversity in grasslands

MacDougall, Andrew S., Bennett, Joseph R., Firn, Jennifer, Seabloom, Eric W., Borer, Elizabeth T., Lind, Eric M., Orrock, John L., Harpole, W. Stanley, Hautier, Yann, Adler, Peter B., Cleland, Elsa, Davies, Kendi, Melbourne, Brett, Prober, Suzanne M., Bakker, Jonathan D., Fay, Philip A., Jin, Virginia L., Kendig, Amy, La Pierre, Kimberly J., Moore, Joslin, Morgan, John and Stevens, Carly J. (2014) Anthropogenic-based regional-scale factors most consistently explain plot-level exotic diversity in grasslands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23 7: 802-810. doi:10.1111/geb.12157


Author MacDougall, Andrew S.
Bennett, Joseph R.
Firn, Jennifer
Seabloom, Eric W.
Borer, Elizabeth T.
Lind, Eric M.
Orrock, John L.
Harpole, W. Stanley
Hautier, Yann
Adler, Peter B.
Cleland, Elsa
Davies, Kendi
Melbourne, Brett
Prober, Suzanne M.
Bakker, Jonathan D.
Fay, Philip A.
Jin, Virginia L.
Kendig, Amy
La Pierre, Kimberly J.
Moore, Joslin
Morgan, John
Stevens, Carly J.
Title Anthropogenic-based regional-scale factors most consistently explain plot-level exotic diversity in grasslands
Journal name Global Ecology and Biogeography   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1466-8238
1466-822X
Publication date 2014-07-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/geb.12157
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 23
Issue 7
Start page 802
End page 810
Total pages 9
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Aim
Evidence linking the accumulation of exotic species to the suppression of native diversity is equivocal, often relying on data from studies that have used different methods. Plot-level studies often attribute inverse relationships between native and exotic diversity to competition, but regional abiotic filters, including anthropogenic influences, can produce similar patterns. We seek to test these alternatives using identical scale-dependent sampling protocols in multiple grasslands on two continents.

Location
Thirty-two grassland sites in North America and Australia.

Methods
We use multiscale observational data, collected identically in grain and extent at each site, to test the association of local and regional factors with the plot-level richness and abundance of native and exotic plants. Sites captured environmental and anthropogenic gradients including land-use intensity, human population density, light and soil resources, climate and elevation. Site selection occurred independently of exotic diversity, meaning that the numbers of exotic species varied randomly thereby reducing potential biases if only highly invaded sites were chosen.

Results
Regional factors associated directly or indirectly with human activity had the strongest associations with plot-level diversity. These regional drivers had divergent effects: urban-based economic activity was associated with high exotic : native diversity ratios; climate- and landscape-based indicators of lower human population density were associated with low exotic : native ratios. Negative correlations between plot-level native and exotic diversity, a potential signature of competitive interactions, were not prevalent; this result did not change along gradients of productivity or heterogeneity.

Main conclusion
We show that plot-level diversity of native and exotic plants are more consistently associated with regional-scale factors relating to urbanization and climate suitability than measures indicative of competition. These findings clarify the long-standing difficulty in resolving drivers of exotic diversity using single-factor mechanisms, suggesting that multiple interacting anthropogenic-based processes best explain the accumulation of exotic diversity in modern landscapes.
Keyword Anthropogenic disturbance
Environmental heterogeneity
Exotic plant species
Nutnet (Nutrient Network)
Productivity
Scale dependency
Species diversity
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
 
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