Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing measles (Review)

Young, Megan K., Nimmo, Graeme R., Cripps, AllanW and Jones, Mark A. (2014) Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing measles (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4 4: CD010056.1-CD010056.50. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010056.pub2

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Author Young, Megan K.
Nimmo, Graeme R.
Cripps, AllanW
Jones, Mark A.
Title Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing measles (Review)
Journal name Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1469-493X
Publication date 2014-01-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1002/14651858.CD010056.pub2
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 4
Issue 4
Start page CD010056.1
End page CD010056.50
Total pages 61
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Language eng
Formatted abstract
People who have had measles, or measles vaccine, have antibodies against the virus in their blood that protect them from developing measles should they come into contact with it. These antibodies can be extracted from blood donated by these individuals.

If people without antibodies come into contact with someone who is contagious with measles, they are likely to contract the disease. Measles is usually debilitating and can have serious consequences including death, so preventing it is desirable. One way of preventing measles in this group, when they do come into contact with a contagious person, is to inject them with antibodies that have been extracted from blood donations. This has been practised since the 1920s, but measures of its effectiveness have varied and the minimum amount of antibodies that we can give to prevent measles is unknown.

Based on seven studies (1432 people), of overall moderate quality, injecting antibodies into a muscle of people who came into contact with measles, but lacked their own antibodies, was effective at preventing them catching the disease compared to those who received no treatment. Using the modern day antibody preparation, people were 83% less likely to develop measles than those who were not treated. It was very effective at preventing them developing complications if they did contract measles and very effective at preventing death. The included studies generally did not intend to measure possible harms from the injections. Minor side effects were reported, such as muscle stiffness, redness around the injection site, fever and rash. Importantly, only two studies compared the measles vaccine with the antibody injection in this group of people, so no firm conclusions could be drawn about the relative effectiveness of these interventions.

The antibody injection is often recommended for pregnant women, infants and immunocompromised people (if they do not have their own antibodies to measles and come into contact with someone who is contagious with measles). The included studies did not include these groups of people, so it is unknown whether the effectiveness of antibody injections is different for them. We were also unable to identify the minimum dose of antibodies required as only one study measured the specific amount of measles antibodies in the injections and one other study estimated this figure; the results of these two studies were not consistent.
Keyword Human Plasma Fractionation
Immune Serum Globulin
Convalescent Serum
Prophylactic Value
United States
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
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