Immune control of mammalian gamma-herpesviruses: Lessons from murid herpesvirus-4

Stevenson, P. G., Simas, J. P. and Efstathiou, S. (2009) Immune control of mammalian gamma-herpesviruses: Lessons from murid herpesvirus-4. Journal of General Virology, 90 10: 2317-2330. doi:10.1099/vir.0.013300-0


Author Stevenson, P. G.
Simas, J. P.
Efstathiou, S.
Title Immune control of mammalian gamma-herpesviruses: Lessons from murid herpesvirus-4
Journal name Journal of General Virology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-1317
1465-2099
Publication date 2009-01-01
Year available 2009
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1099/vir.0.013300-0
Volume 90
Issue 10
Start page 2317
End page 2330
Total pages 14
Place of publication Reading, Berks, United Kingdom
Publisher Society for General Microbiology
Language eng
Subject 2406 Virology
2700 Medicine
Abstract Many acute viral infections can be controlled by vaccination; however, vaccinating against persistent infections remains problematic. Herpesviruses are a classic example. Here, we discuss their immune control, particularly that of gamma-herpesviruses, relating the animal model provided by murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) to human infections. The following points emerge: (i) CD8+ T-cell evasion by herpesviruses confers a prominent role in host defence on CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells inhibit MuHV-4 lytic gene expression via gamma-interferon (IFN-γ). By reducing the lytic secretion of immune evasion proteins, they may also help CD8+ T cells to control virus-driven lymphoproliferation in mixed lytic/latent lesions. Similarly, CD4+ T cells specific for Epstein-Barr virus lytic antigens could improve the impact of adoptively transferred, latent antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. (ii) In general, viral immune evasion necessitates multiple host effectors for optimal control. Thus, subunit vaccines, which tend to prime single effectors, have proved less successful than attenuated virus mutants, which prime multiple effectors. Latency-deficient mutants could make safe and effective gamma-herpesvirus vaccines. (iii) The antibody response to MuHV-4 infection helps to prevent disease but is suboptimal for neutralization. Vaccinating virus carriers with virion fusion complex components improves their neutralization titres. Reducing the infectivity of herpesvirus carriers in this way could be a useful adjunct to vaccinating naive individuals with attenuated mutants.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: Clinical Medical Virology Centre Publications
 
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