Fungal remediation of Amarula distillery wastewater

Strong, P. J. (2010) Fungal remediation of Amarula distillery wastewater. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26 1: 133-144. doi:10.1007/s11274-009-0152-x

Author Strong, P. J.
Title Fungal remediation of Amarula distillery wastewater
Journal name World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0959-3993
Publication date 2010-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11274-009-0152-x
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 26
Issue 1
Start page 133
End page 144
Total pages 12
Place of publication Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publisher Springer
Language eng
Abstract Amarula Cream is an alcoholic beverage derived from the distillation of fermented marula fruit and to date there is no scientific data as to the characteristics of the distillery wastewater generated from its production. The wastewater was found to have a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 27 g/l, a pH of 3.8, a high concentration of phenolic compounds (866 mg/l) and a high suspended solids content (10.5 g/l), all of which could adversely affect biological treatment. Full-strength wastewater was treated using shake-flask monocultures of four white rot fungi (Trametes pubescens MB 89, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus or Phanerochaete chrysosporium) at pH 5.0 with no additional carbon or nitrogen supplements. Trametes pubescens performed the best with regards to degrading phenolic compounds, COD and colour, while P. cinnabarinus improved the pH to the greatest extent. Laccase synthesis was only detected in the T. pubescens and C. subvermispora cultures. Six wastewater concentrations (100, 80, 60, 40, 20 and 10%) were assessed at pH 4.5 to establish an optimum concentration for remediation and laccase production by T. pubescens. Similar COD removal efficiencies (71-77%) and phenolic removal efficiencies (87-92%) were achieved at all concentrations. The phenolic removal efficiencies improved by approximately 5% compared to the screening experiment at pH 5.0, indicating that the laccase was more efficient at pH 4.5. The pH became more basic as a result of treatment and the colour decreased for samples below 60% wastewater concentration. The maximum laccase activity (1063 ± 26 units/l) was obtained in the 80% wastewater concentration. This study has resulted in the first characterization of Amarula distillery wastewater and showed that it has a high phenolic compound concentration, COD and suspended solids content. It was possible to biologically treat the wastewater at full strength using a number of white-rot fungi just by raising the pH.
Keyword Aerobic
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Civil Engineering Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 10 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 12 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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