The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Degenhardt, Louisa, Baxter, Amanda J., Lee, Yong Yi, Hall, Wayne, Sara, Grant E., Johns, Nicole, Flaxman, Abraham, Whiteford, Harvey A. and Vos, Theo (2014) The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 137 1: 36-47. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.025


Author Degenhardt, Louisa
Baxter, Amanda J.
Lee, Yong Yi
Hall, Wayne
Sara, Grant E.
Johns, Nicole
Flaxman, Abraham
Whiteford, Harvey A.
Vos, Theo
Title The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010
Journal name Drug and Alcohol Dependence   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0376-8716
1879-0046
Publication date 2014-04-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.025
Volume 137
Issue 1
Start page 36
End page 47
Total pages 12
Place of publication Shannon, Co. Clare, Ireland
Publisher Elsevier
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Aims: To estimate the global prevalence of cocaine and amphetamine dependence and the burden of disease attributable to these disorders.

Methods: An epidemiological model was developed using DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, using epidemiological data (prevalence, incidence, remission and mortality) sourced from a multi-stage systematic review of data. Age, sex and region-specific prevalence was estimated for and multiplied by comorbidity-adjusted disability weightings to estimate years of life lost to disability (YLDs) from these disorders. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated from cross-national vital registry data. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated by summing YLDs and YLLs in 21 regions, by sex and age, in 1990 and 2010.

Results: In 2010, there were an estimated 24.1 million psychostimulant dependent people: 6.9 million cocaine and 17.2 million amphetamines, equating to a point prevalence of 0.10% (0.09-0.11%) for cocaine, and 0.25% (0.22-0.28%) for amphetamines. There were 37.6 amphetamine dependence DALYs (21.3-59.3) per 100,000 population in 2010 and 15.9 per 100,000 (9.3-25.0) cocaine dependence DALYs. There were clear differences between amphetamines and cocaine in the geographic distribution of crude DALYs. Over half of amphetamine dependence DALYs were in Asian regions (52%), whereas almost half of cocaine dependence DALYs were in the Americas (44%, with 23% in North America High Income).

Conclusion: Dependence upon psychostimulants is a substantial contributor to global disease burden; the contribution of cocaine and amphetamines to this burden varies dramatically by geographic region. There is a need to scale up evidence-based interventions to reduce this burden.
Keyword Amphetamines
Cocaine
Psychostimulants
Burden of disease
Epidemiology
Illicit Drug-Use
Systematic Analysis
Cocaine Users
21 Regions
Amphetamine
Health
Australia
Suicide
Metaanalysis
Mortality
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
Official 2015 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 33 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 36 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Sun, 18 May 2014, 10:17:15 EST by System User on behalf of School of Public Health