Control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax

Shanks G.D. (2012). Control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax. In S I Hay, Ric Price and J Kevin Baird (Ed.), The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax : history, hiatus and hubris (pp. 301-341) Oxford United Kingdom: Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397900-1.00006-2

Author Shanks G.D.
Title of chapter Control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax
Formatted title
Control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax
Title of book The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax : history, hiatus and hubris
Place of Publication Oxford United Kingdom
Publisher Academic Press
Publication Year 2012
Sub-type Research book chapter (original research)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-397900-1.00006-2
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Series Advances in Parasitology
ISBN 9780123979001
ISSN 0065-308X
Editor S I Hay
Ric Price
J Kevin Baird
Volume number 80
Chapter number 6
Start page 301
End page 341
Total pages 41
Total chapters 6
Language eng
Subjects 2405 Parasitology
Formatted Abstract/Summary
Plasmodium vivax represents a special challenge to malaria control because of the ability of a single infection to relapse over months to years. P. vivax is more tolerant of low temperatures than P. falciparum, which spreads its potential range far beyond the tropics into sub-Arctic areas. Ordinary malaria control measures such as residual insecticide spraying and impregnated bed nets are effective for P. vivax, but long-lasting (up to 3 years) residual hepatic parasites (hypnozoites) mean that even well-executed malaria control programs must maintain maximal efforts for an extended period in order to eliminate indigenous infections. Hypnozoites are only eliminated by using an 8-aminoquinoline (currently only primaquine), which requires compliance with a long regimen as well as care to avoid those at risk of haemolysis due to the common genetic polymorphism, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Risk of reintroduction of P. vivax into areas without malaria but still containing competent Anopheles vectors is enhanced as persons carrying hypnozoites are undetectable until they become symptomatic from activation of the quiescent liver parasite. Mass drug administration using drug combinations including primaquine have successfully eliminated malaria from small islands demonstrating proof of principal as a potential elimination method. It will be very difficult to maintain adequate malaria surveillance measures for years after malaria has ceased to be a public health problem, which will clearly be required to eliminate relapsing malaria such as P. vivax. New interventions will likely be required to eliminate vivax malaria; highly desirable new products include transmission-blocking vaccines, new drug combinations to treat chloroquine resistant strains and a safe, long-lasting 8-aminoquinoline.
Keyword Malaria elimination
Mass drug administration
Plasmodium vivax
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: School of Public Health Publications
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Created: Mon, 05 May 2014, 20:11:48 EST by Ms Kate Rowe on behalf of School of Public Health