The laboratory mouse in routine safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future

Stewart, Ian and McLeod, Catherin (2014) The laboratory mouse in routine safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future. Journal of AOAC International, 97 2: 356-372. doi:10.5740/jaoacint.SGEStewart


Author Stewart, Ian
McLeod, Catherin
Title The laboratory mouse in routine safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future
Journal name Journal of AOAC International   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1060-3271
1944-7922
Publication date 2014-03-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.5740/jaoacint.SGEStewart
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 97
Issue 2
Start page 356
End page 372
Total pages 17
Place of publication Gaithersburg, MD, United States
Publisher A O A C International
Language eng
Abstract Mouse bioassays have been a mainstay for detecting harmful concentrations of marine algal toxins in shellfish for over 70 years. Routine monitoring involves intraperitoneal injection of shellfish extracts into mice; shellfish contaminated with algal toxins are thus identified by mortality in exposed mice. With the advent of alternative test methods to detect and quantify specific algal toxins has come increasing criticism of enduring use of mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing. However, the complete replacement of shellfish safety mouse bioassays by chemical, antibody-based, and functional assays has been and will continue to be a gradual process for various reasons, including skills availability and instrument costs for chromatography-based toxin monitoring. Mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing do not comply with modern standards for laboratory animal welfare, specifically the requirement in published official methods for death as a test outcome. Mouse bioassays for algal biotoxins in shellfish, as well as fundamental algal toxin research endeavors using in vivo models, are amenable to revision and refinement from a humane endpoints perspective. Regulated hypothermia may be a useful and easily acquired nonlethal toxicological endpoint; objective determination of neuromuscular blockade may allow algal neurotoxin testing and research to enter the domain of humane endpoints evaluation. Relinquishing reliance on subjective test endpoints, including death, will likely also deliver collateral improvements in assay variability and sensitivity.
Keyword Agronomy and Crop Science
Food Science
Analytical Chemistry
Pharmacology
Environmental Chemistry
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 01 Apr 2014, 21:48:45 EST by Robyne Anderson on behalf of National Res Centre For Environmental Toxicology