Design of optically driven microrotors

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina, Asavei, Theodor, Stilgoe, Alexander B., Loke, Vincent L. Y., Vogel, Robert, Nieminen, Timo A. and Heckenberg, Norman R. (2013). Design of optically driven microrotors. In George K . Knopf and Yukitoshi Otani (Ed.), Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology (pp. 277-306) Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press. doi:10.1201/b13892

Author Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina
Asavei, Theodor
Stilgoe, Alexander B.
Loke, Vincent L. Y.
Vogel, Robert
Nieminen, Timo A.
Heckenberg, Norman R.
Title of chapter Design of optically driven microrotors
Title of book Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology
Place of Publication Boca Raton, FL, USA
Publisher CRC Press
Publication Year 2013
Sub-type Research book chapter (original research)
DOI 10.1201/b13892
Open Access Status
ISBN 9781439840535
Editor George K . Knopf
Yukitoshi Otani
Chapter number 9
Start page 277
End page 306
Total pages 30
Total chapters 22
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted Abstract/Summary
Richard Feynman anticipated the idea of micromachines in his 1959 talk, “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” (Feynman 1960). Feynman suggested as a possible micromachine a micromechanical “surgeon,” which could be swallowed and operate inside a faulty blood vessel. At the end of his talk Feynman offered two prizes, one for building an operating electric motor only the size of a 1/64 in.3 and the other for writing a page with letters 1/25,000 smaller than in normal text. Not long after, in November 1960, the first micromachine (the 1/64 in.3 motor) was built by James McLellan, an electrical engineer. The second prize was won in 1985 by Tom Newman, a Stanford graduate student, who wrote the first page of “A Tale of Two Cities” in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist on a silicon nitride membrane by means of electron beam lithography (Newman et al. 1987).

At the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) came into play. MEMS, commonly known as micromachines, are electromechanical machines that range in size from a micrometer to a millimeter. They are built using techniques based on integrated circuit (IC) fabrication methods. The first reported MEMS were silicon electrical micromotors with a diameter of 100 μm (Fan et al. 1989, Mehregany et al. 1990). Nowadays, MEMS are used as sensors and actuators in various applications. Some of the common applications include accelerometers that trigger airbags in cars, inkjet printers, and optical switches for data communications. Although not yet very common, MEMS are finding their ways into medical applications such as blood pressure sensors (Benzel et al. 2004, Goh and Krishnan 1999, Ishiyama et al. 2002).

However, MEMS are not the only available micromachines. Another type of micromachine is the optically fabricated type, based on two-photon photopolymerization (2PP) of UV curing resins. They emerged as a consequence of the rapid prototyping techniques that became available in the 1980s, especially the stereolithography technique (Deitz 1990). Since then there have been several groups around the world that have demonstrated the production of very high–resolution 3D structures.
Q-Index Code B1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Book Chapter
Collections: School of Mathematics and Physics
Official 2014 Collection
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Mon, 31 Mar 2014, 14:16:59 EST by Dr Timo Nieminen on behalf of School of Mathematics & Physics