Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products

Gallen, Christie, Banks, Andrew, Brandsma, Sicco, Baduel, Christine, Thai, Phong., Eaglesham, Geoff, Heffernan, Amy, Leonards, Pim, Bainton, Paul and Mueller, Jochen F. (2014) Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products. Science of the Total Environment, 491-492 255-265. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.074


Author Gallen, Christie
Banks, Andrew
Brandsma, Sicco
Baduel, Christine
Thai, Phong.
Eaglesham, Geoff
Heffernan, Amy
Leonards, Pim
Bainton, Paul
Mueller, Jochen F.
Title Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products
Journal name Science of the Total Environment   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0048-9697
1879-1026
Publication date 2014-02-12
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.074
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 491-492
Start page 255
End page 265
Total pages 11
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Language eng
Abstract Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) once extensively used in the plastics of a wide range of consumer products. The listing of certain congeners that are constituents of commercial PBDE mixtures (including c-octaBDE) in the Stockholm Convention and tightening regulation of many other BFRs in recent years have created the need for a rapid and effective method of identifying BFR-containing plastics. A three-tiered testing strategy comparing results from non-destructive testing (X-ray fluorescence (XRF)) (n = 1714), a surface wipe test (n = 137) and destructive chemical analysis (n = 48) was undertaken to systematically identify BFRs in a wide range of consumer products. XRF rapidly identified bromine in 92% of products later confirmed to contain BFRs. Surface wipes of products identified tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), c-octaBDE congeners and BDE-209 with relatively high accuracy (>75%) when confirmed by destructive chemical analysis. A relationship between the amounts of BFRs detected in surface wipes and subsequent destructive testing shows promise in predicting not only the types of BFRs present but also estimating the concentrations present. Information about the types of products that may contain persistent BFRs will assist regulators in implementing policies to further reduce the occurrence of these chemicals in consumer products. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Formatted abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) once extensively used in the plastics of a wide range of consumer products. The listing of certain congeners that are constituents of commercial PBDE mixtures (including c-octaBDE) in the Stockholm Convention and tightening regulation of many other BFRs in recent years have created the need for a rapid and effective method of identifying BFR-containing plastics. A three-tiered testing strategy comparing results from non-destructive testing (X-ray fluorescence (XRF)) (n = 1714), a surface wipe test (n = 137) and destructive chemical analysis (n = 48) was undertaken to systematically identify BFRs in a wide range of consumer products. XRF rapidly identified bromine in 92% of products later confirmed to contain BFRs. Surface wipes of products identified tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), c-octaBDE congeners and BDE-209 with relatively high accuracy (> 75%) when confirmed by destructive chemical analysis. A relationship between the amounts of BFRs detected in surface wipes and subsequent destructive testing shows promise in predicting not only the types of BFRs present but also estimating the concentrations present. Information about the types of products that may contain persistent BFRs will assist regulators in implementing policies to further reduce the occurrence of these chemicals in consumer products 
Keyword Plastic
Surface wipe
Consumer products
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article in press

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 20 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 25 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 11 Mar 2014, 20:02:17 EST by Christie Gallen on behalf of National Res Centre For Environmental Toxicology