Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge

Fang, James K. H., Schönberg, Christine H. L., Mello-Athayde, Matheus A., Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove and Dove, Sophie (2014) Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge. Global Change Biology, 20 4: 1043-1054. doi:10.1111/gcb.12369

Author Fang, James K. H.
Schönberg, Christine H. L.
Mello-Athayde, Matheus A.
Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove
Dove, Sophie
Title Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge
Journal name Global Change Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1354-1013
Publication date 2014-04-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/gcb.12369
Volume 20
Issue 4
Start page 1043
End page 1054
Total pages 12
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with ‘business-as-usual’ CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves (biomass) they have accumulated through the rest of the year.
Keyword Acidification
Carbon balance
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article first published online: 11 FEB 2014

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Global Change Institute Publications
Official 2015 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 18 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 14 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Thu, 13 Feb 2014, 18:41:30 EST by Michelle Hall on behalf of Global Change Institute