A Single Dose of Azithromycin Does Not Improve Clinical Outcomes of Children Hospitalised with Bronchiolitis: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial

McCallum G.B., Morris P.S., Chatfield M.D., Maclennan C., White A.V., Sloots T.P., Mackay I.M. and Chang A.B. (2013) A Single Dose of Azithromycin Does Not Improve Clinical Outcomes of Children Hospitalised with Bronchiolitis: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLoS ONE, 8 9: 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074316


Author McCallum G.B.
Morris P.S.
Chatfield M.D.
Maclennan C.
White A.V.
Sloots T.P.
Mackay I.M.
Chang A.B.
Title A Single Dose of Azithromycin Does Not Improve Clinical Outcomes of Children Hospitalised with Bronchiolitis: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Journal name PLoS ONE   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1932-6203
Publication date 2013-09-25
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0074316
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 8
Issue 9
Start page 1
End page 9
Total pages 9
Place of publication San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.
Publisher Public Library of Science
Language eng
Subject 1100 Agricultural and Biological Sciences
1300 Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
2700 Medicine
Abstract Objective:Bronchiolitis, one of the most common reasons for hospitalisation in young children, is particularly problematic in Indigenous children. Macrolides may be beneficial in settings where children have high rates of nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and frequent prolonged illness. The aim of our double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was to determine if a large single dose of azithromycin (compared to placebo) reduced length of stay (LOS), duration of oxygen (O2) and respiratory readmissions within 6 months of children hospitalised with bronchiolitis. We also determined the effect of azithromycin on nasopharyngeal microbiology.Methods:Children aged ≤18 months were randomised to receive a single large dose (30 mg/kg) of either azithromycin or placebo within 24 hrs of hospitalisation. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at baseline and 48hrs later. Primary endpoints (LOS, O2) were monitored every 12 hrs. Hospitalised respiratory readmissions 6-months post discharge was collected.Results:97 children were randomised (n = 50 azithromycin, n = 47 placebo). Median LOS was similar in both groups; azithromycin = 54 hours, placebo = 58 hours (difference between groups of 4 hours 95%CI -8, 13, p = 0.6). O2 requirement was not significantly different between groups; Azithromycin = 35 hrs; placebo = 42 hrs (difference 7 hours, 95%CI -9, 13, p = 0.7). Number of children re-hospitalised was similar 10 per group (OR = 0.9, 95%CI 0.3, 2, p = 0.8). At least one virus was detected in 74% of children. The azithromycin group had reduced nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage (p = 0.01) but no difference in viral detection at 48 hours.Conclusion:Although a single dose of azithromycin reduces carriage of bacteria, it is unlikely to be beneficial in reducing LOS, duration of O2 requirement or readmissions in children hospitalised with bronchiolitis. It remains uncertain if an earlier and/or longer duration of azithromycin improves clinical and microbiological outcomes for children. The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register. Clinical trials number: ACTRN12608000150347. http://www. anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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Created: Wed, 12 Feb 2014, 19:52:58 EST by Matthew Lamb on behalf of School of Medicine