The craving expectancy questionnaire: a brief, theory-based measure of consummatory desire and craving

May, Jon, Andrade, Jackie, Kavanagh, David J., Feeney, Gerald F. X., Gullo, Mathew J., Statham, Dixie J., Skorka-Brown, Jessica, Connolly, Jennifer M., Cassimatis, Mandy, Young, Ross McD. and Connor, Jason P. (2014) The craving expectancy questionnaire: a brief, theory-based measure of consummatory desire and craving. Addiction, Accepted Article 5: 1-32. doi:10.1111/add.12472

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Author May, Jon
Andrade, Jackie
Kavanagh, David J.
Feeney, Gerald F. X.
Gullo, Mathew J.
Statham, Dixie J.
Skorka-Brown, Jessica
Connolly, Jennifer M.
Cassimatis, Mandy
Young, Ross McD.
Connor, Jason P.
Title The craving expectancy questionnaire: a brief, theory-based measure of consummatory desire and craving
Journal name Addiction   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0965-2140
Publication date 2014-01-08
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/add.12472
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume Accepted Article
Issue 5
Start page 1
End page 32
Total pages 32
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Abstract Background and Aims
Formatted abstract
Background and aims Research into craving is hampered by lack of theoretical specification and a plethora of substance-specific measures. This study aimed to develop a generic measure of craving based on Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) examined whether a generic measure replicated the 3-factor structure of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) scale over different consummatory targets and timeframes.

Design Twelve studies were pooled for CFA. Targets included alcohol, cigarettes, chocolate and food. Focal periods varied from the present moment to the previous week. Separate analyses were conducted for Strength and Frequency forms.

Setting Nine studies included university students, with single studies drawn from an Internet survey, a community sample of smokers, and alcohol-dependent outpatients.

Participants A heterogeneous sample of 1230 participants.

Measurements Adaptations of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire.

Findings Both craving Strength (CFI .974; RMSEA .039, 95%CI .035-.044) and Frequency (CFI .971, RMSEA .049, 95%CI .044-.055) gave an acceptable three-factor solution across desired targets that mapped onto the structure of the original ACE (Intensity, Imagery, Intrusiveness), after removing an item, reallocating another and taking intercorrelated error terms into account. Similar structures were obtained across timeframes and targets. Preliminary validity data on the resulting 10-item Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) for cigarettes and alcohol were strong.

Conclusions The Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) is a brief, conceptually grounded and psychometrically sound measure of desires. It demonstrates a consistent factor structure across a range of consummatory targets in both laboratory and clinical contexts.
Keyword Substance Abuse
Substance Abuse
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID APP1021909
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Accepted manuscript online: 8 JAN 2014

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
School of Psychology Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 22 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 23 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Sun, 09 Feb 2014, 21:43:15 EST by Ms Dayna Smith on behalf of Centre for Youth Substance Abuse