Central and peripheral adjustments during high-intensity exercise following cold water immersion

Stanley, Jamie, Peake, Jonathan M., Coombes, Jeff S. and Buchheit, Martin (2014) Central and peripheral adjustments during high-intensity exercise following cold water immersion. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114 1: 147-163. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2755-z

Author Stanley, Jamie
Peake, Jonathan M.
Coombes, Jeff S.
Buchheit, Martin
Title Central and peripheral adjustments during high-intensity exercise following cold water immersion
Journal name European Journal of Applied Physiology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1439-6319
Publication date 2014-01-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s00421-013-2755-z
Volume 114
Issue 1
Start page 147
End page 163
Total pages 17
Place of publication Heidelberg, Germany
Publisher Springer
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Purpose: We investigated the acute effects of cold water immersion (CWI) or passive recovery (PAS) on physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

Methods: In a crossover design, 14 cyclists completed 2 HIIT sessions (HIIT1 and HIIT2) separated by 30 min. Between HIIT sessions, they stood in cold water (10 °C) up to their umbilicus, or at room temperature (27 °C) for 5 min. The natural logarithm of square-root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (ln rMSSD) was assessed pre- and post-HIIT1 and HIIT2. Stroke volume (SV), cardiac output ( Q̇ ), O2 uptake (O2), total muscle hemoglobin (tHb) and oxygenation of the vastus lateralis were recorded (using near infrared spectroscopy); heart rate, , and O2 on-kinetics (i.e., mean response time, MRT), muscle de-oxygenation rate, and anaerobic contribution to exercise were calculated for HIIT1 and HIIT2.

Results: ln rMSSD was likely higher [between-trial difference (90 % confidence interval) [+13.2 % (3.3; 24.0)] after CWI compared with PAS. CWI also likely increased SV [+5.9 % (-0.1; 12.1)], possibly increased  [+4.4 % (-1.0; 10.3)], possibly slowed MRT [+18.3 % (-4.1; 46.0)], very likely slowed O2 MRT [+16.5 % (5.8; 28.4)], and likely increased the anaerobic contribution to exercise [+9.7 % (-1.7; 22.5)].

Conclusion: CWI between HIIT slowed O2 on-kinetics, leading to increased anaerobic contribution during HIIT2. This detrimental effect of CWI was likely related to peripheral adjustments, because the slowing of O2 on-kinetics was twofold greater than that of central delivery of O2 (i.e.,). CWI has detrimental effects on high-intensity aerobic exercise performance that persist for ≥45 min.
Keyword Autonomic nervous system
High-intensity cycling
Muscle oxygenation
Post-exercise recovery
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences Publications
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