A proteomics and transcriptomics investigation of the venom from the Barychelid spider Trittame loki (brush-foot trapdoor)

Undheim, Eivind A. B., Sunagar, Kartik, Herzig, Volker, Kely, Laurence, Low, Dolyce H. W., Jackson, Timothy N. W., Jones, Alun, Kurniawan, Nyoman, King, Glenn F., Ali, Syed A., Antunes, Agostino, Ruder, Tim and Fry, Bryan G. (2013) A proteomics and transcriptomics investigation of the venom from the Barychelid spider Trittame loki (brush-foot trapdoor). Toxins, 5 12: 2488-2503. doi:10.3390/toxins5122488

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Author Undheim, Eivind A. B.
Sunagar, Kartik
Herzig, Volker
Kely, Laurence
Low, Dolyce H. W.
Jackson, Timothy N. W.
Jones, Alun
Kurniawan, Nyoman
King, Glenn F.
Ali, Syed A.
Antunes, Agostino
Ruder, Tim
Fry, Bryan G.
Title A proteomics and transcriptomics investigation of the venom from the Barychelid spider Trittame loki (brush-foot trapdoor)
Formatted title
A proteomics and transcriptomics investigation of the venom from the Barychelid spider Trittame loki (brush-foot trapdoor)
Journal name Toxins   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2072-6651
Publication date 2013-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3390/toxins5122488
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 5
Issue 12
Start page 2488
End page 2503
Total pages 16
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publisher M D P I AG
Language eng
Subject 3005 Toxicology
2307 Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Formatted abstract
Although known for their potent venom and ability to prey upon both invertebrate and vertebrate species, the Barychelidae spider family has been entirely neglected by toxinologists. In striking contrast, the sister family Theraphosidae (commonly known as tarantulas), which last shared a most recent common ancestor with Barychelidae over 200 million years ago, has received much attention, accounting for 25% of all the described spider toxins while representing only 2% of all spider species. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the venom arsenal of a barychelid spider, Trittame loki, using transcriptomic, proteomic, and bioinformatic methods. The venom was revealed to be dominated by extremely diverse inhibitor cystine knot (ICK)/knottin peptides, accounting for 42 of the 46 full-length toxin precursors recovered in the transcriptomic sequencing. In addition to documenting differential rates of evolution adopted by different ICK/knottin toxin lineages, we discovered homologues with completely novel cysteine skeletal architecture. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase and neprilysin were revealed for the first time as part of the spider-venom arsenal and CAP (CRiSP/Allergen/PR-1) were identified for the first time in mygalomorph spider venoms. These results not only highlight the extent of venom diversification in this neglected ancient spider lineage, but also reinforce the idea that unique venomous lineages are rich pools of novel biomolecules that may have significant applied uses as therapeutics and/or insecticides.
Keyword Evolution
Mygalomorph
Spider
Toxin
Venom
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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