Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?

Docherty, Graeme, Mcneill, Ann, Gartner, Coral and Szatkowski, Lisa (2014) Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?. Addiction, 109 1: 147-154. doi:10.1111/add.12359

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Author Docherty, Graeme
Mcneill, Ann
Gartner, Coral
Szatkowski, Lisa
Title Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?
Journal name Addiction   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0965-2140
Publication date 2014-01-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/add.12359
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 109
Issue 1
Start page 147
End page 154
Total pages 8
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Aims: To assess trends in the prevalence of 'hardcore' smoking in England between 2000 and 2010, and to examine associations between hardcore smoking and socio-demographic variables.

Design: Secondary analysis of data from the United Kingdom's General Lifestyle Survey (GLF) and the Health Survey for England (HSE).

Setting: Households in England.

Participants: Self-reported adult current smokers resident in England aged 26years and over.

Measurements: Hardcore smokers were defined in three ways: smokers who do not want to quit (D1), those who 'usually' smoke their first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes of waking (D2) and a combination of D1 and D2, termed D3. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore associations between these variables and calendar year, age, sex and socio-economic status, and P-values for trends in odds were calculated.

Findings: The odds of smokers being defined as hardcore according to D3 increased over time in both the GLF (P<0.001) and HSE (P=0.04), even after adjusting for risk factors. Higher dependence (D2) was noted in men [odds ratio (OR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.24], those of 50-59 years (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.80-2.09) and smokers in lower occupational groups (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: (1.97-2.26). Lack of motivation to quit (D1) increased with age and was more likely in men.

Conclusions: The proportion of smokers in England with both low motivation to quit and high dependence appears to have increased between 2000 and 2010, independently of risk factors, suggesting that 'hardening' may be occurring in this smoker population.
Keyword Cessation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article first published online: 28 October 2013.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
Official 2014 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 11 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 12 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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