Chronic toxicology of cannabis

Reece, Albert Stuart (2009) Chronic toxicology of cannabis. Clinical Toxicology, 47 6: 517-524. doi:10.1080/15563650903074507


Author Reece, Albert Stuart
Title Chronic toxicology of cannabis
Journal name Clinical Toxicology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1556-3650
1556-9519
Publication date 2009-07-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1080/15563650903074507
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 47
Issue 6
Start page 517
End page 524
Total pages 8
Place of publication New York, United States
Publisher Informa Healthcare
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Introduction. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter.

Methods. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review.

Findings. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist.

Conclusion. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.
Keyword Cannabis
Psychopathology
Respiratory pathology
Psychosis
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: School of Medicine Publications
 
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