Facial soft tissue depth statistics and enhanced point estimators for craniofacial identification: the debut of the shorth and the 75-shormax

Stephan, Carl N., Simpson, Ellie K. and Byrd, John E. (2013) Facial soft tissue depth statistics and enhanced point estimators for craniofacial identification: the debut of the shorth and the 75-shormax. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58 6: 1439-1457. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12252


Author Stephan, Carl N.
Simpson, Ellie K.
Byrd, John E.
Title Facial soft tissue depth statistics and enhanced point estimators for craniofacial identification: the debut of the shorth and the 75-shormax
Journal name Journal of Forensic Sciences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-1198
1556-4029
Publication date 2013-11-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/1556-4029.12252
Volume 58
Issue 6
Start page 1439
End page 1457
Total pages 19
Place of publication Hoboken, NJ, United States
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Language eng
Abstract Several methods that have customarily been used in craniofacial identification to describe facial soft tissue depths (FSTDs) implore improvement. They include the calculation of arithmetic means for skewed data, omission of concern for measurement uncertainty, oversight of effect size, and misuse of statistical significance tests (e.g., p-values for strength of association). This paper redresses these limitations using FSTDs from 10 prior studies (N = 516). Measurement uncertainty was large (>20% of the FSTD), skewness (≥0.8) existed at 11 of the 23 FSTD landmarks examined, and sex and age each explained <4% of the total FSTD variance (η2 calculated as part of MANOVA). These results call for a new and improved conceptualization of FSTDs, which is attained by the replacement of arithmetic means with shorths and 75-shormaxes. The outcomes of this implementation are dramatic reduction in FSTD complexity; improved data accuracy; and new data-driven standards for casework application of methods.
Keyword Forensic science
Facial approximation
Facial reconstruction
Photographic superimposition
Video superimposition
Facial soft tissue thickness
Skeletal identification
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 18 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 17 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Sun, 24 Nov 2013, 10:16:40 EST by System User on behalf of School of Biomedical Sciences