Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms

Watkins, W. S., Thara, R., Mowry, B. J., Zhang, Y., Witherspoon, D. J., Tolpinrud, W., Bamshad, M. J., Tirupati, S., Padmavati, R., Smith, H., Nancarrow, D., Filippich, C. and Jorde, L. B. (2008) Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms. BMC Genetics, 9 . doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-86

Author Watkins, W. S.
Thara, R.
Mowry, B. J.
Zhang, Y.
Witherspoon, D. J.
Tolpinrud, W.
Bamshad, M. J.
Tirupati, S.
Padmavati, R.
Smith, H.
Nancarrow, D.
Filippich, C.
Jorde, L. B.
Title Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms
Journal name BMC Genetics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1471-2156
Publication date 2008-12-12
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1186/1471-2156-9-86
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 9
Total pages 17
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations.

Results: We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data.

Conclusion: Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions.
Keyword Human populations
Andhra Pradesh
Modern humans
Tribal populations
Microsatellite diversity
Maharashtra India
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ
Additional Notes Article number 86

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
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