Estimating the proportion of prescription opioids that is consumed by people who inject drugs in Australia

Degenhardt, Louisa, Gilmour, Stuart, Shand, Fiona, Bruno, Raimondo, Campbell, Gabrielle, Mattick, Richard P., Larance, Briony and Hall, Wayne (2013) Estimating the proportion of prescription opioids that is consumed by people who inject drugs in Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review, 32 5: 468-474. doi:10.1111/dar.12066

Author Degenhardt, Louisa
Gilmour, Stuart
Shand, Fiona
Bruno, Raimondo
Campbell, Gabrielle
Mattick, Richard P.
Larance, Briony
Hall, Wayne
Title Estimating the proportion of prescription opioids that is consumed by people who inject drugs in Australia
Journal name Drug and Alcohol Review   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0959-5236
Publication date 2013-09-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/dar.12066
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 32
Issue 5
Start page 468
End page 474
Total pages 7
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Introduction and Aims: To estimate the contribution that people who inject drugs (PWID) make to population-level use of prescription opioids in Australia.

Design and Methods: Data on prescriptions of oxycodone, morphine and methadone tablets were obtained for New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland, and time series analyses used to characterise the trends from 2002 to 2010. Estimates of the number of PWID were combined with data on their levels, frequency and typical doses of morphine, methadone tablet (only prescribed in Australia for pain) and oxycodone from 2004 to 2010. Estimated consumption per 1000 PWID and per 1000 persons aged 20-69 years was contrasted and the proportion of total consumption accounted for by PWID estimated.

Results: Morphine prescribing declined; oxycodone prescribing increased. PWID had far higher rates of prescription opioid consumption (defined daily doses per 1000) than the general population. Tasmania had highest use of prescribed opioids. PWID contribution to morphine consumption in Tasmania increased to 28% (range 22-37%) in 2010; elsewhere, PWID contribution was lower (midpoints of 2-12%, 2010). Methadone tablet use was less elevated compared with the general population. With the exception of Tasmania, PWID were estimated to consume less than 5% of oxycodone.

Discussion and Conclusions: PWID use prescription opioids at high levels and can account for a significant proportion of consumption. Increased oxycodone prescribing in Australia has not been driven by PWID. Opioid substitution therapy and other effective treatments need to be more available and attractive to PWID. [
Keyword Pharmaceutical opioid
Injecting drug use
Chronic pain
Opioid substitution therapy
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
Official 2014 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 7 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 6 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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