The activation of vivax malaria hypnozoites by infectious diseases

Shanks, G. Dennis and White, Nicholas J. (2013) The activation of vivax malaria hypnozoites by infectious diseases. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13 10: 900-906. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70095-1


Author Shanks, G. Dennis
White, Nicholas J.
Title The activation of vivax malaria hypnozoites by infectious diseases
Journal name Lancet Infectious Diseases   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1473-3099
1474-4457
Publication date 2013-10-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70095-1
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 13
Issue 10
Start page 900
End page 906
Total pages 7
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher The Lancet Publishing Group
Language eng
Abstract The periodicity of vivax malaria relapses may be explained by the activation of latent hypnozoites acquired from a previous malarial infection. The activation stimulus could be the febrile illness associated with acute malaria or a different febrile infection. We review historical records to examine the association between relapses of Plasmodium vivax and febrile infectious diseases. In data from British soldiers in Palestine, epidemic falciparum malaria triggered a smaller epidemic of P vivax relapses only in those who had been extensively exposed to malaria previously. Relapses did not follow pandemic influenza infection. Evidence from three simultaneous typhoid and malaria epidemics suggest that typhoid fever might activate P vivax hypnozoites. Some data lend support to the notion that vivax malaria relapse followed febrile illness caused by relapsing fever, trench fever, epidemic typhus, and Malta fever (brucellosis). These observations suggest that systemic parasitic and bacterial infections, but not viral infections, can activate P vivax hypnozoites. Specific components of the host's acute febrile inflammatory response, and not fever alone, are probably important factors in the provocation of a relapse of vivax malaria.
Formatted abstract
The periodicity of vivax malaria relapses may be explained by the activation of latent hypnozoites acquired from a previous malarial infection. The activation stimulus could be the febrile illness associated with acute malaria or a different febrile infection. We review historical records to examine the association between relapses of Plasmodium vivax and febrile infectious diseases. In data from British soldiers in Palestine, epidemic falciparum malaria triggered a smaller epidemic of P vivax relapses only in those who had been extensively exposed to malaria previously. Relapses did not follow pandemic influenza infection. Evidence from three simultaneous typhoid and malaria epidemics suggest that typhoid fever might activate P vivax hypnozoites. Some data lend support to the notion that vivax malaria relapse followed febrile illness caused by relapsing fever, trench fever, epidemic typhus, and Malta fever (brucellosis). These observations suggest that systemic parasitic and bacterial infections, but not viral infections, can activate P vivax hypnozoites. Specific components of the host’s acute febrile inflammatory response, and not fever alone, are probably important factors in the provocation of a relapse of vivax malaria.
Keyword Postinjury malaria
Falciparum malaria
Relapsing fever
Diagnosis
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID 089275
093956
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 32 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 36 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Sun, 27 Oct 2013, 10:11:34 EST by System User on behalf of School of Public Health