Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida and subcellular fractionation of Zn

Li, Lian-Zhen, Zhou, Dong-Mei, Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M., van Gestel, Cornelis A. M., Jin, Sheng-Yang, Wang, Yu-Jun and Wang, Peng (2011) Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida and subcellular fractionation of Zn. Environment International, 37 6: 1098-1104. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.008

Author Li, Lian-Zhen
Zhou, Dong-Mei
Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.
van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.
Jin, Sheng-Yang
Wang, Yu-Jun
Wang, Peng
Title Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida and subcellular fractionation of Zn
Journal name Environment International   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0160-4120
Publication date 2011-08-01
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.008
Open Access Status
Volume 37
Issue 6
Start page 1098
End page 1104
Total pages 7
Place of publication Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications has raised great concerns about their environmental fate and biological effects. This study examined the impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and salts on ZnO NP dispersion/solubility and toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. To be able to better evaluate the toxicity of NPs, exposure in agar and on filter paper was proposed for enabling a comparison of the importance of different uptake routes. A dose-related increase in mortality was observed in earthworms exposed in agar with almost 100% mortality after 96. h exposure to the highest concentration (1000. mg. ZnO/kg agar). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of salts enhanced the aggregation of ZnO NPs in agar and consequently affected the dissolution behavior and biological availability of the particles. On filter paper, mortality was the highest at the lowest exposure concentration (50. mg. ZnO/L) and seemed to decrease with increasing exposure levels. TEM images of ZnO showed that the solubility and morphology of NPs were changed dramatically upon the addition of Humic Acids (HA). The subcellular distribution pattern of Zn in earthworms after 96. h exposure in agar and on filter paper showed that the Zn taken up via dietary ZnO particles (from agar) was mainly found in organelles and the cytosol while the Zn accumulated as soluble Zn from filter paper was mainly distributed in cell membranes and tissues. Antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, and GSH-px) were investigated in the worms surviving the toxicity tests. A slight increase of SOD activities was observed at the lowest exposure dose of ZnO (50. mg/kg), followed by a decrease at 100. mg/kg in the agar cubes. Activities of both CAT and GSH-Px enzymes were not significantly influenced in the worms exposed to agar, although a slight decrease at 500 and 1000. mg. ZnO/kg agar was observed. A similar change trend of SOD activities was observed for the earthworms on filter paper, but a significant decrease began at a higher ZnO NP concentration of 500. mg. ZnO/L. The use of soil extracts instead of deionized water (DW) to simulate a realistic exposure system significantly reduced the toxicity of the ZnO NPs on filter paper, which increases the predictive power of filter paper toxicity tests for the environmental risk assessment of NPs
Keyword Nanoparticle suspension stability
ZnO nanoparticle dissolution
Nanoparticle toxicity
Antioxidant enzyme activity
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 47 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 52 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Fri, 20 Sep 2013, 01:39:59 EST by Peng Wang on behalf of School of Agriculture and Food Sciences