The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass: a brief review

Nzihou, Ange and Stanmore, Brian (2013) The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass: a brief review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 256-257 56-66. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.02.050


Author Nzihou, Ange
Stanmore, Brian
Title The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass: a brief review
Formatted title
The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass—a brief review
Journal name Journal of Hazardous Materials   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0304-3894
1873-3336
Publication date 2013-07-15
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.02.050
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 256-257
Start page 56
End page 66
Total pages 11
Place of publication Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Language eng
Subject 2305 Environmental Engineering
2304 Environmental Chemistry
2311 Waste Management and Disposal
2310 Pollution
2307 Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Abstract The literature on the presence of heavy metals in contaminated wastes is reviewed. Various categories of materials produced from domestic and industrial activities are included, but municipal solid waste, which is a more complex material, is excluded. This review considers among the most abundant the following materials - wood waste including demolition wood, phytoremediation scavengers and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) timber, sludges including de-inking sludge and sewage sludge, chicken litter and spent pot liner. The partitioning of the metals in the ashes after combustion or gasification follows conventional behaviour, with most metals retained, and higher concentrations in the finer sizes due to vaporisation and recondensation. The alkali metals have been shown to catalyse the biomass conversion, particularly lithium and potassium, although other metals are active to a lesser extent. The most prevalent in biomass is potassium, which is not only inherently active, but volatilises to become finely distributed throughout the char mass. Because the metals are predominantly found in the ash, the effectiveness of their removal depends on the efficiency of the collection of particulates. The potential for disposal into soil depends on the initial concentration in the feed material.
Formatted abstract
The literature on the presence of heavy metals in contaminated wastes is reviewed. Various categories of materials produced from domestic and industrial activities are included, but municipal solid waste, which is a more complex material, is excluded. This review considers among the most abundant the following materials – wood waste including demolition wood, phytoremediation scavengers and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) timber, sludges including de-inking sludge and sewage sludge, chicken litter and spent pot liner. The partitioning of the metals in the ashes after combustion or gasification follows conventional behaviour, with most metals retained, and higher concentrations in the finer sizes due to vaporisation and recondensation. The alkali metals have been shown to catalyse the biomass conversion, particularly lithium and potassium, although other metals are active to a lesser extent. The most prevalent in biomass is potassium, which is not only inherently active, but volatilises to become finely distributed throughout the char mass. Because the metals are predominantly found in the ash, the effectiveness of their removal depends on the efficiency of the collection of particulates. The potential for disposal into soil depends on the initial concentration in the feed material.

Highlights ► A review on metal behaviour during the thermal treatment of contamined biomass. ► Wide range of biomass waste reported. ► Distribution of metals in the ash, and in the sub-micron particles discussed.
Keyword Contaminated biomass
Heavy metals
Partitioning
Combustion
Gasification
CCA-treated wood
Fluidized-bed combustion
Sewage-sludge
Fly-ash
Electrostatic precipitator
Environmental-impact
Thermal-treatment
Poultry litter
Flue-gas
Waste
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: School of Chemical Engineering Publications
Official 2014 Collection
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 62 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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