Underlying structure of ruminative thinking: Factor analysis of the ruminative thought style questionnaire

Tanner, Alicia, Voon, David, Hasking, Penelope and Martin, Graham (2013) Underlying structure of ruminative thinking: Factor analysis of the ruminative thought style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37 3: 633-646. doi:10.1007/s10608-012-9492-1


Author Tanner, Alicia
Voon, David
Hasking, Penelope
Martin, Graham
Title Underlying structure of ruminative thinking: Factor analysis of the ruminative thought style questionnaire
Journal name Cognitive Therapy and Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0147-5916
1573-2819
Publication date 2013-06-01
Year available 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s10608-012-9492-1
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 37
Issue 3
Start page 633
End page 646
Total pages 14
Place of publication New York, NY, United States
Publisher Springer New York
Language eng
Abstract The Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ) is a 20-item measure assessing a single dimension of rumination over and above valence, temporal orientation of thought content, and the cognitive-affective context in which it occurs. The current study examined the factor structure of rumination as measured by the RTSQ, and whether findings of its initial validation study could be replicated within an adolescent sample (N = 2,362). An exploratory factor analysis and a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis were undertaken on two subsamples (n = 1,181) which did not significantly differ in gender and age. Five items with factor loadings of <.50 or cross loadings of >.30 on a second factor were removed. As hypothesised, an exploratory factor analysis on the final 15 items demonstrated the RTSQ was comprised of four rumination subcomponents, labelled "Problem-Focused Thoughts", "Counterfactual Thinking", "Repetitive Thoughts", and "Anticipatory Thoughts". A confirmatory factor analysis supported this, contrary to the initial validation study. Each of these subscales had differential contributions to psychological distress and coping styles in separate multiple regressions. Our findings support the increasing body of evidence suggesting a multidimensional structure for rumination, and clinical implications are noted.
Formatted abstract
The Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ) is a 20-item measure assessing a single dimension of rumination over and above valence, temporal orientation of thought content, and the cognitive-affective context in which it occurs. The current study examined the factor structure of rumination as measured by the RTSQ, and whether findings of its initial validation study could be replicated within an adolescent sample (N = 2,362). An exploratory factor analysis and a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis were undertaken on two subsamples (n = 1,181) which did not significantly differ in gender and age. Five items with factor loadings of <.50 or cross loadings of >.30 on a second factor were removed. As hypothesised, an exploratory factor analysis on the final 15 items demonstrated the RTSQ was comprised of four rumination subcomponents, labelled “Problem-Focused Thoughts”, “Counterfactual Thinking”, “Repetitive Thoughts”, and “Anticipatory Thoughts”. A confirmatory factor analysis supported this, contrary to the initial validation study. Each of these subscales had differential contributions to psychological distress and coping styles in separate multiple regressions. Our findings support the increasing body of evidence suggesting a multidimensional structure for rumination, and clinical implications are noted.
Keyword Rumination
Factor analysis
Adolescents
Psychological distress
Exploratory factor-analysis
General health questionnaire-12
Confirmatory factor-analysis
Nonsuicidal self-injury
Depressive symptoms
Repetitive thought
Counterfactual thinking
Individual-differences
Negative affect
Worry
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published online: 14 October 2012

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
 
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