Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation

Halpern, Benjamin S., Klein, Carissa J., Brown, Christopher J., Beger, Maria, Grantham, Hedley S., Mangubhai, Sangeeta, Ruckelshaus, Mary, Tulloch, Vivitskaia J., Watts, Matt, White, Crow and Possingham, Hugh P. (2013) Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110 15: 6229-6234. doi:10.1073/pnas.1217689110


Author Halpern, Benjamin S.
Klein, Carissa J.
Brown, Christopher J.
Beger, Maria
Grantham, Hedley S.
Mangubhai, Sangeeta
Ruckelshaus, Mary
Tulloch, Vivitskaia J.
Watts, Matt
White, Crow
Possingham, Hugh P.
Title Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation
Journal name Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0027-8424
1091-6490
Publication date 2013-04-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1217689110
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 110
Issue 15
Start page 6229
End page 6234
Total pages 6
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher National Academy of Sciences
Language eng
Subject 1000 General
Abstract Triple-bottom-line outcomes from resource management and conservation, where conservation goals and equity in social outcomes are maximized while overall costs are minimized, remain a highly sought-after ideal. However, despite widespread recognition of the importance that equitable distribution of benefits or costs across society can play in conservation success, little formal theory exists for how to explicitly incorporate equity into conservation planning and prioritization. Here, we develop that theory and implement it for three very different case studies in California (United States), Raja Ampat (Indonesia), and the wider Coral Triangle region (Southeast Asia). We show that equity tends to trade off nonlinearly with the potential to achieve conservation objectives, such that similar conservation outcomes can be possible with greater equity, to a point. However, these case studies also produce a range of trade-off typologies between equity and conservation, depending on how one defines and measures social equity, including direct (linear) and no trade-off. Important gaps remain in our understanding, most notably how equity influences probability of conservation success, in turn affecting the actual ability to achieve conservation objectives. Results here provide an important foundation for moving the science and practice of conservation planning-and broader spatial planning in general-toward more consistently achieving efficient, equitable, and effective outcomes.
Keyword Marine protected areas
Environmental justice
Marine spatial planning
Ecosystem-based management
Social-ecological systems
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID DP110102153
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Global Change Institute Publications
Official 2014 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
 
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