Thyroid hormones and fetal neurological development

Patel, J., Landers, K., Li, H., Mortimer, R. H. and Richard, K. (2011) Thyroid hormones and fetal neurological development. Journal of Endocrinology, 209 1: 1-8. doi:10.1530/JOE-10-0444


Author Patel, J.
Landers, K.
Li, H.
Mortimer, R. H.
Richard, K.
Title Thyroid hormones and fetal neurological development
Journal name Journal of Endocrinology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-0795
1479-6805
Publication date 2011-04-01
Year available 2011
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1530/JOE-10-0444
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 209
Issue 1
Start page 1
End page 8
Total pages 8
Place of publication Bristol, United Kingdom
Publisher BioScientifica
Language eng
Abstract The development of fetal thyroid function is dependent on the embryogenesis, differentiation, and maturation of the thyroid gland. This is coupled with evolution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and thyroid hormone metabolism, resulting in the regulation of thyroid hormone action, production, and secretion. Throughout gestation there is a steady supply of maternal thyroxine (T(4)) which has been observed in embryonic circulation as early as 4 weeks post-implantation. This is essential for normal early fetal neurogenesis. Triiodothyronine concentrations remain very low during gestation due to metabolism via placental and fetal deiodinase type 3. T(4) concentrations are highly regulated to maintain low concentrations, essential for protecting the fetus and reaching key neurological sites such as the cerebral cortex at specific developmental stages. There are many known cell membrane thyroid hormone transporters in fetal brain that play an essential role in regulating thyroid hormone concentrations in key structures. They also provide the route for intracellular thyroid hormone interaction with associated thyroid hormone receptors, which activate their action. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from rats and humans to suggest that even mild maternal hypothyroxinemia may lead to abnormalities in fetal neurological development. Our review will focus on the ontogeny of thyroid hormone in fetal development, with a focus on cell membrane transporters and TR action in the brain. Journal of Endocrinology (2011) 209, 1-8
Formatted abstract
The development of fetal thyroid function is dependent on the embryogenesis, differentiation, and maturation of the thyroid gland. This is coupled with evolution of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis and thyroid hormone metabolism, resulting in the regulation of thyroid hormone action, production, and secretion. Throughout gestation there is a steady supply of maternal thyroxine (T4) which has been observed in embryonic circulation as early as 4 weeks post-implantation. This is essential for normal early fetal neurogenesis. Triiodothyronine concentrations remain very low during gestation due to metabolism via placental and fetal deiodinase type 3. T4 concentrations are highly regulated to maintain low concentrations, essential for protecting the fetus and reaching key neurological sites such as the cerebral cortex at specific developmental stages. There are many known cell membrane thyroid hormone transporters in fetal brain that play an essential role in regulating thyroid hormone concentrations in key structures. They also provide the route for intracellular thyroid hormone interaction with associated thyroid hormone receptors, which activate their action. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from rats and humans to suggest that even mild maternal hypothyroxinemia may lead to abnormalities in fetal neurological development. Our review will focus on the ontogeny of thyroid hormone in fetal development, with a focus on cell membrane transporters and TR action in the brain.
Keyword Type-2 Iodothyronine deiodinase
Herndon-dudley-syndrome
Rat cerebral-cortex
Psychomotor retardation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: School of Medicine Publications
 
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