Long-term unemployment and suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Milner, Allison, Page, Andrew and LaMontagne, Anthony D. (2013) Long-term unemployment and suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 8 1: e51333.1-e51333.6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051333


Author Milner, Allison
Page, Andrew
LaMontagne, Anthony D.
Title Long-term unemployment and suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal name PLoS One   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1932-6203
Publication date 2013-01-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0051333
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 8
Issue 1
Start page e51333.1
End page e51333.6
Total pages 6
Place of publication San Francisco, CA., United States
Publisher Public Library of Science
Language eng
Abstract Long-term breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continuation of breastfeeding with complementary food until two years of age, has been recommended by the World Health Organization. However, despite the clear benefits of long-term breastfeeding (six months and beyond), the rates of breastfeeding still continue to remain low. Although there are some individual interventional studies that aimed to increase prolonged breastfeeding rates among both multiparous and primiparous women, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of those interventions among primiparous women who had no previous breastfeeding experience.
Formatted abstract
Purpose: There have been a number of reviews on the association+ between unemployment and suicide, but none have investigated how this relationship is influenced by duration of unemployment.

Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of those studies that assessed duration of unemployment as a risk factor for suicide. Studies considered as eligible for inclusion were population-based cohort or case-control designs; population-based ecological designs, or hospital based clinical cohort or case-control designs published in the year 1980 or later.

Results: The review identified 16 eligible studies, out of a possible 10,358 articles resulting from a search of four databases:  PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus and Proquest. While all 16 studies measured unemployment duration in different ways, a common finding was that longer duration of unemployment was related to greater risk of suicide and suicide attempt. A random effects meta-analys is on a subsample of six cohort studies indicated that the pooled relative risk of suicide in relation to average follow-up time after unemployment was 1.70 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.18). However, results also suggested a possible habituation effect to unemployment over time, with the greatest risk of suicide occurring within five years of unemployment compared to the employed population (RR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.17). Relative risk appeared to decline in studies of those unemployed between 12 and 16 years compared to those currently employed (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.33).

Conclusion: Findings suggest that long-term unemployment is associated with greater incidence of suicide. Results of the meta-analysis suggest that risk is greatest in the first five years, and persists at a lower but elevated level up to 16 years after unemployment. These findings are limited by the paucity of data on this topic.
Keyword Psychiatric illness
Men
Women
Parasuicide
Edinburgh
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
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