Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Murray, Christopher J. L., Vos, Theo, Lozano, Rafael, Naghavi, Mohsen, Flaxman, Abraham D., Michaud, Catherine, Ezzati, Majid, Shibuya, Kenji, Salomon, Joshua A., Abdalla, Safa, Aboyans, Victor, Abraham, Jerry, Ackerman, Ilana, Aggarwal, Rakesh, Ahn, Stephanie Y., Ali, Mohammed K., Alvarado, Miriam, Anderson, H. Ross, Anderson, Laurie M., Andrews, Kathryn G., Atkinson, Charles, Baddour, Larry M., Bahalim, Adil N., Barker-Collo, Suzanne, Barrero, Lope H., Bartels, David H., Basanez, Maria-Gloria, Baxter, Amanda, Bell, Michelle L., Benjamin, Emelia J., Bennett, Derrick, Bernabe, Eduardo, Bhalla, Kavi, Bhandari, Bishal, Bikbov, Boris, Bin Abdulhak, Aref, Birbeck, Gretchen, Black, James A., Blencowe, Hannah, Blore, Jed D., Blyth, Fiona, Bolliger, Ian, Bonaventure, Audrey, Boufous, Soufi Ane, Bourne, Rupert, Boussinesq, Michel, Braithwaite, Tasanee, Brayne, Carol, Bridgett, Lisa, Brooker, Simon, Brooks, Peter, Brugha, Traolach S., Bryan-Hancock, Claire, Bucello, Chiara, Buchbinder, Rachelle, Buckle, Geoffrey, Budke, Christine M., Burch, Michael, Burney, Peter, Burstein, Roy, Calabria, Bianca, Campbell, Benjamin, Canter, Charles E., Carabin, Helene, Carapetis, Jonathan, Carmona, Loreto, Cella, Claudia, Charlson, Fiona, Chen, Honglei, Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann, Chou, David, Chugh, Sumeet S., Coffeng, Luc E., Colan, Steven D., Colquhoun, Samantha, Colson, K. Ellicott, Condon, John, Connor, Myles D., Cooper, Leslie T., Corriere, Matthew, Cortinovis, Monica, De Vaccaro, Karen Courville, Couser, William, Cowie, Benjamin C., Criqui, Michael H., Cross, Marita, Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C., Dahiya, Manu, Dahodwala, Nabila, Damsere-Derry, James, Danaei, Goodarz, Davis, Adrian, De Leo, Diego, Degenhardt, Louisa, Dellavalle, Robert, Delossantos, Allyne, Denenberg, Julie, Derrett, Sarah, Des Jarlais, Don C., Dharmaratne, Samath D., Dherani, Mukesh, Diaz-Torne, Cesar, Dolk, Helen, Dorsey, E. Ray, Driscoll, Tim, Duber, Herbert, Ebel, Beth, Edmond, Karen, Elbaz, Alexis, Ali, Suad Eltahir, Erskine, Holly, Erwin, Patricia J., Espindola, Patricia, Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E., Farzadfar, Farshad, Feigin, Valery, Felson, David T., Ferrari, Alize, Ferri, Cleusa P., Fevre, Eric M., Finucane, Mariel M., Flaxman, Seth, Flood, Louise, Foreman, Kyle, Forouzanfar, Mohammad H., Fowkes, Francis Gerry R., Fransen, Marlene, Freeman, Michael K., Gabbe, Belinda J., Gabriel, Sherine E., Gakidou, Emmanuela, Ganatra, Hammad A., Garcia, Bianca, Gaspari, Flavio, Gillum, Richard F., Gmel, Gerhard, Gonzalez-Medina, Diego, Gosselin, Richard, Grainger, Rebecca, Grant, Bridget, Groeger, Justina, Guillemin, Francis, Gunnell, David, Gupta, Ramyani, Haagsma, Juanita, Hagan, Holly, Halasa, Yara A., Hall, Wayne, Haring, Diana, Maria Haro, Josep, Harrison, James E., Havmoeller, Rasmus, Hay, Roderick J., Higashi, Hideki, Hill, Catherine, Hoen, Bruno, Hoffman, Howard, Hotez, Peter J., Hoy, Damian, Huang, John J., Ibeanusi, Sydney E., Jacobsen, Kathryn H., James, Spencer L., Jarvis, Deborah, Jasrasaria, Rashmi, Jayaraman, Sudha, Johns, Nicole, Jonas, Jost B., Karthikeyan, Ganesan, Kassebaum, Nicholas, Kawakami, Norito, Keren, Andre, Khoo, Jon-Paul, King, Charles H., Knowlton, Lisa Marie, Kobusingye, Olive, Koranteng, Adofo, Krishnamurthi, Rita, Laden, Francine, Lalloo, Ratilal, Laslett, Laura L., Lathlean, Tim, Leasher, Janet L., Lee, Yong Yi, Leigh, James, Levinson, Daphna, Lim, Stephen S., Limb, Elizabeth, Lin, John Kent, Lipnick, Michael, Lipshultz, Steven E., Liu, Wei, Loane, Maria, Ohno, Summer Lockett, Lyons, Ronan, Mabweijano, Jacqueline, MacIntyre, Michael F., Malekzadeh, Reza, Mallinger, Leslie, Manivannan, Sivabalan, Marcenes, Wagner, March, Lyn, Margolis, David J., Marks, Guy B., Marks, Robin, Matsumori, Akira, Matzopoulos, Richard, Mayosi, Bongani M., McAnulty, John H., McDermott, Mary M., McGill, Neil, McGrath, John, Elena Medina-Mora, Maria, Meltzer, Michele, Mensah, George A., Merriman, Tony R., Meyer, Ana-Claire, Miglioli, Valeria, Miller, Matthew, Miller, Ted R., Mitchell, Philip B., Mock, Charles, Mocumbi, Ana Olga, Moffitt, Terrie E., Mokdad, Ali A., Monasta, Lorenzo, Montico, Marcella, Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar, Moran, Andrew, Morawska, Lidia, Mori, Rintaro, Murdoch, Michele E., Mwaniki, Michael K., Naidoo, Kovin, Nair, M. Nathan, Naldi, Luigi, Narayan, K. M. Venkat, Nelson, Paul K., Nelson, Robert G., Nevitt, Michael C., Newton, Charles R., Nolte, Sandra, Norman, Paul, Norman, Rosana, O'Donnell, Martin, O'Hanlon, Simon, Olives, Casey, Omer, Saad B., Ortblad, Katrina, Osborne, Richard, Ozgediz, Doruk, Page, Andrew, Pahari, Bishnu, Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai, Panozo Rivero, Andrea, Patten, Scott B., Pearce, Neil, Perez Padilla, Rogelio, Perez-Ruiz, Fernando, Perico, Norberto, Pesudovs, Konrad, Phillips, David, Phillips, Michael R., Pierce, Kelsey, Pion, Sebastien, Polanczyk, Guilherme V., Polinder, Suzanne, Pope, C. Arden, III, Popova, Svetlana, Porrini, Esteban, Pourmalek, Farshad, Prince, Martin, Pullan, Rachel L., Ramaiah, Kapa D., Ranganathan, Dharani, Razavi, Homie, Regan, Mathilda, Rehm, Juergen T., Rein, David B., Remuzzi, Guiseppe, Richardson, Kathryn, Rivara, Frederick P., Roberts, Thomas, Robinson, Carolyn, Rodriguez De Leon, Felipe, Ronfani, Luca, Room, Robin, Rosenfeld, Lisa C., Rushton, Lesley, Sacco, Ralph L., Saha, Sukanta, Sampson, Uchechukwu, Sanchez-Riera, Lidia, Sanman, Ella, Schwebel, David C., Scott, James Graham, Segui-Gomez, Maria, Shahraz, Saeid, Shepard, Donald S., Shin, Hwashin, Shivakoti, Rupak, Singh, David, Singh, Gitanjali M., Singh, Jasvinder A., Singleton, Jessica, Sleet, David A., Sliwa, Karen, Smith, Emma, Smith, Jennifer L., Stapelberg, Nicolas J. C., Steer, Andrew, Steiner, Timothy, Stolk, Wilma A., Stovner, Lars Jacob, Sudfeld, Christopher, Syed, Sana, Tamburlini, Giorgio, Tavakkoli, Mohammad, Taylor, Hugh R., Taylor, Jennifer A., Taylor, William J., Thomas, Bernadette, Thomson, W. Murray, Thurston, George D., Tleyjeh, Imad M., Tonelli, Marcello, Towbin, Jeff Rey A., Truelsen, Thomas, Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K., Ubeda, Clotilde, Undurraga, Eduardo A., van der Werf, Marieke J., van Os, Jim, Vavilala, Monica S., Venketasubramanian, N., Wang, Mengru, Wang, Wenzhi, Watt, Kerrianne, Weatherall, David J., Weinstock, Martin A., Weintraub, Robert, Weisskopf, Marc G., Weissman, Myrna M., White, Richard A., Whiteford, Harvey, Wiebe, Natasha, Wiersma, Steven T., Wilkinson, James D., Williams, Hywel C., Williams, Sean R. M., Witt, Emma, Wolfe, Frederick, Woolf, Anthony D., Wulf, Sarah, Yeh, Pon-Hsiu, Zaidi, Anita K. M., Zheng, Zhi-Jie, Zonies, David and Lopez, Alan D. (2012) Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380 9859: 2197-2223. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads

Author Murray, Christopher J. L.
Vos, Theo
Lozano, Rafael
Naghavi, Mohsen
Flaxman, Abraham D.
Michaud, Catherine
Ezzati, Majid
Shibuya, Kenji
Salomon, Joshua A.
Abdalla, Safa
Aboyans, Victor
Abraham, Jerry
Ackerman, Ilana
Aggarwal, Rakesh
Ahn, Stephanie Y.
Ali, Mohammed K.
Alvarado, Miriam
Anderson, H. Ross
Anderson, Laurie M.
Andrews, Kathryn G.
Atkinson, Charles
Baddour, Larry M.
Bahalim, Adil N.
Barker-Collo, Suzanne
Barrero, Lope H.
Bartels, David H.
Basanez, Maria-Gloria
Baxter, Amanda
Bell, Michelle L.
Benjamin, Emelia J.
Bennett, Derrick
Bernabe, Eduardo
Bhalla, Kavi
Bhandari, Bishal
Bikbov, Boris
Bin Abdulhak, Aref
Birbeck, Gretchen
Black, James A.
Blencowe, Hannah
Blore, Jed D.
Blyth, Fiona
Bolliger, Ian
Bonaventure, Audrey
Boufous, Soufi Ane
Bourne, Rupert
Boussinesq, Michel
Braithwaite, Tasanee
Brayne, Carol
Bridgett, Lisa
Brooker, Simon
Brooks, Peter
Brugha, Traolach S.
Bryan-Hancock, Claire
Bucello, Chiara
Buchbinder, Rachelle
Buckle, Geoffrey
Budke, Christine M.
Burch, Michael
Burney, Peter
Burstein, Roy
Calabria, Bianca
Campbell, Benjamin
Canter, Charles E.
Carabin, Helene
Carapetis, Jonathan
Carmona, Loreto
Cella, Claudia
Charlson, Fiona
Chen, Honglei
Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann
Chou, David
Chugh, Sumeet S.
Coffeng, Luc E.
Colan, Steven D.
Colquhoun, Samantha
Colson, K. Ellicott
Condon, John
Connor, Myles D.
Cooper, Leslie T.
Corriere, Matthew
Cortinovis, Monica
De Vaccaro, Karen Courville
Couser, William
Cowie, Benjamin C.
Criqui, Michael H.
Cross, Marita
Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.
Dahiya, Manu
Dahodwala, Nabila
Damsere-Derry, James
Danaei, Goodarz
Davis, Adrian
De Leo, Diego
Degenhardt, Louisa
Dellavalle, Robert
Delossantos, Allyne
Denenberg, Julie
Derrett, Sarah
Des Jarlais, Don C.
Dharmaratne, Samath D.
Dherani, Mukesh
Diaz-Torne, Cesar
Dolk, Helen
Dorsey, E. Ray
Driscoll, Tim
Duber, Herbert
Ebel, Beth
Edmond, Karen
Elbaz, Alexis
Ali, Suad Eltahir
Erskine, Holly
Erwin, Patricia J.
Espindola, Patricia
Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E.
Farzadfar, Farshad
Feigin, Valery
Felson, David T.
Ferrari, Alize
Ferri, Cleusa P.
Fevre, Eric M.
Finucane, Mariel M.
Flaxman, Seth
Flood, Louise
Foreman, Kyle
Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
Fowkes, Francis Gerry R.
Fransen, Marlene
Freeman, Michael K.
Gabbe, Belinda J.
Gabriel, Sherine E.
Gakidou, Emmanuela
Ganatra, Hammad A.
Garcia, Bianca
Gaspari, Flavio
Gillum, Richard F.
Gmel, Gerhard
Gonzalez-Medina, Diego
Gosselin, Richard
Grainger, Rebecca
Grant, Bridget
Groeger, Justina
Guillemin, Francis
Gunnell, David
Gupta, Ramyani
Haagsma, Juanita
Hagan, Holly
Halasa, Yara A.
Hall, Wayne
Haring, Diana
Maria Haro, Josep
Harrison, James E.
Havmoeller, Rasmus
Hay, Roderick J.
Higashi, Hideki
Hill, Catherine
Hoen, Bruno
Hoffman, Howard
Hotez, Peter J.
Hoy, Damian
Huang, John J.
Ibeanusi, Sydney E.
Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
James, Spencer L.
Jarvis, Deborah
Jasrasaria, Rashmi
Jayaraman, Sudha
Johns, Nicole
Jonas, Jost B.
Karthikeyan, Ganesan
Kassebaum, Nicholas
Kawakami, Norito
Keren, Andre
Khoo, Jon-Paul
King, Charles H.
Knowlton, Lisa Marie
Kobusingye, Olive
Koranteng, Adofo
Krishnamurthi, Rita
Laden, Francine
Lalloo, Ratilal
Laslett, Laura L.
Lathlean, Tim
Leasher, Janet L.
Lee, Yong Yi
Leigh, James
Levinson, Daphna
Lim, Stephen S.
Limb, Elizabeth
Lin, John Kent
Lipnick, Michael
Lipshultz, Steven E.
Liu, Wei
Loane, Maria
Ohno, Summer Lockett
Lyons, Ronan
Mabweijano, Jacqueline
MacIntyre, Michael F.
Malekzadeh, Reza
Mallinger, Leslie
Manivannan, Sivabalan
Marcenes, Wagner
March, Lyn
Margolis, David J.
Marks, Guy B.
Marks, Robin
Matsumori, Akira
Matzopoulos, Richard
Mayosi, Bongani M.
McAnulty, John H.
McDermott, Mary M.
McGill, Neil
McGrath, John
Elena Medina-Mora, Maria
Meltzer, Michele
Mensah, George A.
Merriman, Tony R.
Meyer, Ana-Claire
Miglioli, Valeria
Miller, Matthew
Miller, Ted R.
Mitchell, Philip B.
Mock, Charles
Mocumbi, Ana Olga
Moffitt, Terrie E.
Mokdad, Ali A.
Monasta, Lorenzo
Montico, Marcella
Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
Moran, Andrew
Morawska, Lidia
Mori, Rintaro
Murdoch, Michele E.
Mwaniki, Michael K.
Naidoo, Kovin
Nair, M. Nathan
Naldi, Luigi
Narayan, K. M. Venkat
Nelson, Paul K.
Nelson, Robert G.
Nevitt, Michael C.
Newton, Charles R.
Nolte, Sandra
Norman, Paul
Norman, Rosana
O'Donnell, Martin
O'Hanlon, Simon
Olives, Casey
Omer, Saad B.
Ortblad, Katrina
Osborne, Richard
Ozgediz, Doruk
Page, Andrew
Pahari, Bishnu
Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai
Panozo Rivero, Andrea
Patten, Scott B.
Pearce, Neil
Perez Padilla, Rogelio
Perez-Ruiz, Fernando
Perico, Norberto
Pesudovs, Konrad
Phillips, David
Phillips, Michael R.
Pierce, Kelsey
Pion, Sebastien
Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
Polinder, Suzanne
Pope, C. Arden, III
Popova, Svetlana
Porrini, Esteban
Pourmalek, Farshad
Prince, Martin
Pullan, Rachel L.
Ramaiah, Kapa D.
Ranganathan, Dharani
Razavi, Homie
Regan, Mathilda
Rehm, Juergen T.
Rein, David B.
Remuzzi, Guiseppe
Richardson, Kathryn
Rivara, Frederick P.
Roberts, Thomas
Robinson, Carolyn
Rodriguez De Leon, Felipe
Ronfani, Luca
Room, Robin
Rosenfeld, Lisa C.
Rushton, Lesley
Sacco, Ralph L.
Saha, Sukanta
Sampson, Uchechukwu
Sanchez-Riera, Lidia
Sanman, Ella
Schwebel, David C.
Scott, James Graham
Segui-Gomez, Maria
Shahraz, Saeid
Shepard, Donald S.
Shin, Hwashin
Shivakoti, Rupak
Singh, David
Singh, Gitanjali M.
Singh, Jasvinder A.
Singleton, Jessica
Sleet, David A.
Sliwa, Karen
Smith, Emma
Smith, Jennifer L.
Stapelberg, Nicolas J. C.
Steer, Andrew
Steiner, Timothy
Stolk, Wilma A.
Stovner, Lars Jacob
Sudfeld, Christopher
Syed, Sana
Tamburlini, Giorgio
Tavakkoli, Mohammad
Taylor, Hugh R.
Taylor, Jennifer A.
Taylor, William J.
Thomas, Bernadette
Thomson, W. Murray
Thurston, George D.
Tleyjeh, Imad M.
Tonelli, Marcello
Towbin, Jeff Rey A.
Truelsen, Thomas
Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K.
Ubeda, Clotilde
Undurraga, Eduardo A.
van der Werf, Marieke J.
van Os, Jim
Vavilala, Monica S.
Venketasubramanian, N.
Wang, Mengru
Wang, Wenzhi
Watt, Kerrianne
Weatherall, David J.
Weinstock, Martin A.
Weintraub, Robert
Weisskopf, Marc G.
Weissman, Myrna M.
White, Richard A.
Whiteford, Harvey
Wiebe, Natasha
Wiersma, Steven T.
Wilkinson, James D.
Williams, Hywel C.
Williams, Sean R. M.
Witt, Emma
Wolfe, Frederick
Woolf, Anthony D.
Wulf, Sarah
Yeh, Pon-Hsiu
Zaidi, Anita K. M.
Zheng, Zhi-Jie
Zonies, David
Lopez, Alan D.
Title Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010
Journal name Lancet   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0140-6736
1474-547X
Publication date 2012-12-01
Year available 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4
Open Access Status Link (no DOI)
Volume 380
Issue 9859
Start page 2197
End page 2223
Total pages 27
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher The Lancet Publishing Group
Language eng
Subject 2700 Medicine
Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are important public health problems in Ethiopia. In 2013, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has launched a national NTD master plan to eliminate major NTDs of public health importance by 2020. Benchmarking the current status of NTDs in the country is important to monitor and evaluate the progress in the implementation of interventions and their impacts. Therefore, this study aims to assess the trends of mortality and Disability-adjusted Life-Years (DALY) for the priority NTDs over the last 25 years.
Formatted abstract
Background
Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.

Methods

We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights.

Findings
Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions.

Interpretation
Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results.

Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Keyword Public-health utility
Risk-factors
Economic cost
Mortality
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID 201900
Institutional Status UQ

 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 3190 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 3624 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Sat, 12 Jan 2013, 05:12:29 EST by System User on behalf of Scholarly Communication and Digitisation Service