Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles for Australian driving conditions – part 1: technical and financial analysis

Sharma, R ., Manzie, C., Bessede, M., Brear, M. J. and Crawford, R. H. (2012) Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles for Australian driving conditions – part 1: technical and financial analysis. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 25 238-249. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2012.06.003

Author Sharma, R .
Manzie, C.
Bessede, M.
Brear, M. J.
Crawford, R. H.
Title Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles for Australian driving conditions – part 1: technical and financial analysis
Journal name Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0968-090X
Publication date 2012-12-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.trc.2012.06.003
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 25
Start page 238
End page 249
Total pages 12
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon
Language eng
Subject 3313 Transportation
2300 Environmental Science
Abstract Analyzing the factors that affect the energy efficiency of vehicles is crucial to the overall improvement of the environmental efficiency of the transport sector, one of the top polluting sectors at the global level. This study analyses the energy consumption rate (ECR) and driving range of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and provides insight into the factors that affect their energy consumption by harnessing big data from real-world driving. The analysis relied on four data sources: (i) driving patterns collected from 741 drivers over a two-year period; (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road type; (iv) weather conditions. The results of the analysis measure the mean ECR of BEVs at 0.183 kW h/km, underline a 34% increase in ECR and a 25% decrease in driving range in the winter with respect to the summer, and suggest the electricity tariff for BEVs to be cost efficient with respect to conventional ones. Moreover, the results of the analysis show that driving speed, acceleration and temperature have non-linear effects on the ECR, while season and precipitation level have a strong linear effect. The econometric model of the ECR of BEVs suggests that the optimal driving speed is between 45 and 56 km/h and the ideal temperature from an energy efficiency perspective is 14 °C. Clearly, the performance of BEVs highly depends on the driving environment, the driving patterns, and the weather conditions, and the findings from this study enlighten the consumers to be more informed and manufacturers to be more aware about the actual utilization of BEVs.
Formatted abstract
This paper is the first of a two part study which quantifies the economic and greenhouse performance of conventional, hybrid and fully electric passenger vehicles operating in Australian driving conditions. This first study focuses on the total cost of vehicle ownership. Two vehicle sizes are considered, Class-E and Class-B, which bracket the large majority of passenger vehicles on Australian roads.

Simulation models of baseline production, conventional vehicles are first developed. These models are then systematically altered to obtain the fuel and/or electricity consumption of equivalent mild hybrid, parallel hybrid, plug-in hybrid and fully electric vehicles. The total operating cost of each vehicle is then calculated, and the vehicle production costs are estimated by decomposing the vehicles into their major constituent parts. This enables the total cost of vehicle ownership to be estimated, taking particular account of variations in fuel, electricity and battery prices.
Keyword Life cycle analysis
Australian driving
Passenger vehicles
Hybrid vehicles
Electric vehicles
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 33 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 37 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Wed, 07 Nov 2012, 08:11:56 EST by Rahul Sharma on behalf of School of Information Technol and Elec Engineering