Pathology and immunohistochemical findings of West Nile virus infection in psittaciformes

Palmieri, C., Franca, M., Uzal, F., Anderson, M., Barr, B., Woods, L., Moore, J., Woolcock, P. and Shivaprasad, H. L. (2011) Pathology and immunohistochemical findings of West Nile virus infection in psittaciformes. Veterinary Pathology, 48 5: 975-984. doi:10.1177/0300985810391112

Author Palmieri, C.
Franca, M.
Uzal, F.
Anderson, M.
Barr, B.
Woods, L.
Moore, J.
Woolcock, P.
Shivaprasad, H. L.
Title Pathology and immunohistochemical findings of West Nile virus infection in psittaciformes
Journal name Veterinary Pathology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0300-9858
Publication date 2011-09-01
Year available 2010
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1177/0300985810391112
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 48
Issue 5
Start page 975
End page 984
Total pages 10
Place of publication Thousand Oaks, CA, United States
Publisher Sage Publications
Language eng
Formatted abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 38 psittacine birds based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rosellas (Platycercus spp, n = 13), conures (Enicognathus, Aratinga, and Nandayus spp, n = 6), and lorikeets (Trichoglossus spp, n = 6) represented the most commonly affected species. Clinical signs ranged from lethargy, ruffled feathers, anorexia, and weight loss in most birds to sudden death in others. Except for mild to moderate enlargement of liver and spleen, there were no significant gross lesions at necropsy. Histopathologic findings included lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, splenitis, enteritis, pancreatitis, and occasionally, encephalitis. Viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in 34 of 35 hearts (97.1%), 29 of 32 pancreata (90.6%), 33 of 37 kidneys (89.2%), 31 of 35 intestines (88.6%), 27 of 33 gizzards (81.8%), 8 of 10 ovaries (80%), 27 of 34 spleens (79.4%), 30 of 38 livers (78.9%), 23 of 32 lungs (71.9%), 21 of 31 proventriculi (67.7%), 14 of 21 adrenals (66.7%), 10 of 16 testes (62.5%), 17 of 30 brains (56.7%), 15 of 27 skins (55.5%), 3 of 6 oviducts (50%), 15 of 34 skeletal muscles (44.1%), 11 of 27 crop or esophagus (40.7%), and 1 of 6 thymuses (16.7%). Kidney was positive for WNV by RT-PCR in all the cases tested. In conclusion, Psittaciformes are susceptible to West Nile virus infection, and WNV infections are often associated with nonspecific clinical signs and widespread viral distribution in this order of birds.
Keyword Psittaciformes
West Nile virus
Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ
Additional Notes Published online before print December 15, 2010

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Veterinary Science Publications
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Created: Sat, 20 Oct 2012, 03:30:10 EST by Chiara Palmieri on behalf of School of Veterinary Science