The Relationship Between the Pgi Locus and the Ability to Fly At Low-Temperatures in the Monarch Butterfly Danaus-Plexippus

Hughes, JM and Zalucki, MP (1993) The Relationship Between the Pgi Locus and the Ability to Fly At Low-Temperatures in the Monarch Butterfly Danaus-Plexippus. Biochemical Genetics, 31 11-12: 521-532. doi:10.1007/BF02426883


Author Hughes, JM
Zalucki, MP
Title The Relationship Between the Pgi Locus and the Ability to Fly At Low-Temperatures in the Monarch Butterfly Danaus-Plexippus
Journal name Biochemical Genetics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0006-2928
Publication date 1993-12-01
Year available 1993
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/BF02426883
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 31
Issue 11-12
Start page 521
End page 532
Total pages 12
Publisher SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS
Language eng
Abstract To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration. Using these counts to estimate population size, however, does not account for the shift of monarch activity from agricultural fields to non-agricultural sites over the past 20 years, as a result of the loss of agricultural milkweeds due to the near-ubiquitous use of glyphosate herbicides. We present the counter-hypotheses that the proportion of the monarch population present in non-agricultural habitats, where counts are made, has increased and that counts reflect both population size and the proportion of the population observed. We use data on the historical change in the proportion of milkweeds, and thus monarch activity, in agricultural fields and non-agricultural habitats to show why using counts can produce misleading conclusions about population size. We then separate out the shifting proportion effect from the counts to estimate the population size and show that these corrected summer monarch counts show a decline over time and are correlated with the size of the overwintering population. In addition, we present evidence against the hypothesis of increased mortality during migration. The milkweed limitation hypothesis for monarch decline remains supported and conservation efforts focusing on adding milkweeds to the landscape in the summer breeding region have a sound scientific basis.
Keyword Butterfly
Flight
Low Temperature
Pgi Locus
Adaptation
Selection
Population
Genotypes
Behavior
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: ResearcherID Downloads - Archived
 
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