Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: What role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise?

Paulsen, Goran, Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer, Raastad, Truls and Peake, Jonathan M. (2012) Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: What role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise?. Exercise Immunology Review, 18 42-97.

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Author Paulsen, Goran
Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer
Raastad, Truls
Peake, Jonathan M.
Title Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: What role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise?
Journal name Exercise Immunology Review   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1077-5552
Publication date 2012-01-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Volume 18
Start page 42
End page 97
Total pages 56
Place of publication Tubingen, Germany
Publisher Verein zur Foerderung der Sportmedizin
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Abstract Exercise-induced muscle damage is an important topic in exercise physiology. However, several aspects of our understanding of how muscles respond to highly stressful exercise remain unclear. In the first section of this review we address the evidence that exercise can cause muscle damage and inflammation in otherwise healthy human skeletal muscles. We approach this concept by comparing changes in muscle function (i.e., the force-generating capacity) with the degree of leucocyte accumulation in muscle following exercise. In the second section, we explore the cytokine response to ‘muscle-damaging exercise’, primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role of the cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX1 and 2). In summary, we propose that muscle damage as evaluated by changes in muscle function is related to leucocyte accumulation in the exercised muscles. ‘Extreme’ exercise protocols, encompassing unaccustomed maximal eccentric exercise across a large range of motion, generally inflict severe muscle damage, inflammation and prolonged recovery (> 1 week). By contrast, exercise resembling regular athletic training (resistance exercise and downhill running) typically causes mild muscle damage (myofibrillar disruptions) and full recovery normally occurs within a few days. Large variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however, be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear. The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle damage.With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear. The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains uncertain. The COX enzymes regulate satellite cell activity, as demonstrated in animal models; however, the roles of the COX enzymes in human skeletal muscle need further investigation.We suggest using the term ‘muscle damage’ with care. Comparisons between studies and individuals must consider changes in and recovery of muscle force-generating capacity.
Keyword Skeletal muscle
Lengthening contractions
Ultrastructural disruptions
Necrosis
Myokines
Cyclooxygenase (COX1, COX2)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences Publications
Centre for Military and Veterans' Health Publications
 
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