The velocity dispersion and mass function of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 4

Frank, Matthias J., Hilker, Michael, Baumgardt, Holger, Cote, Patrick, Grebel, Eva K., Haghi, Hosein, Kupper, Andreas H. W. and Djorgovski, S. G. (2012) The velocity dispersion and mass function of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 4. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 423 3: 2917-2932. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21105.x

Author Frank, Matthias J.
Hilker, Michael
Baumgardt, Holger
Cote, Patrick
Grebel, Eva K.
Haghi, Hosein
Kupper, Andreas H. W.
Djorgovski, S. G.
Title The velocity dispersion and mass function of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 4
Journal name Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0035-8711
Publication date 2012-07-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21105.x
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 423
Issue 3
Start page 2917
End page 2932
Total pages 16
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Oxford University Press
Language eng
Formatted abstract
We obtained precise line-of-sight radial velocities of 23 member stars of the remote halo globular cluster Palomar 4 (Pal 4) using the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We also measured the mass function of the cluster down to a limiting magnitude of V∼ 28 mag using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging. We derived the cluster’s surface brightness profile based on the WFPC2 data and on broad-band imaging with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at the Keck II telescope. We find a mean cluster velocity of 72.55 ± 0.22 km s−1 and a velocity dispersion of 0.87 ± 0.18 km s−1. The global mass function of the cluster, in the mass range 0.55 ≤M≤ 0.85 M, is shallower than a Kroupa mass function and the cluster is significantly depleted in low-mass stars in its centre compared to its outskirts. Since the relaxation time of Pal 4 is of the order of a Hubble time, this points to primordial mass segregation in this cluster. Extrapolating the measured mass function towards lower mass stars and including the contribution of compact remnants, we derive a total cluster mass of 29 800 M. For this mass, the measured velocity dispersion is consistent with the expectations of Newtonian dynamics and below the prediction of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). Pal 4 adds to the growing body of evidence that the dynamics of star clusters in the outer Galactic halo can hardly be explained by MOND.
Keyword Stars: formation
Globular clusters: individual: Palomar 4
Galaxies: star clusters: general
Stellar dynamics
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Mathematics and Physics
Official 2013 Collection
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 21 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 24 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Tue, 24 Jul 2012, 03:02:54 EST by System User on behalf of School of Mathematics & Physics