Cation and anion leaching and growth of Acacia saligna in bauxite residue sand amended with residue mud, poultry manure and phosphogypsum

Jones, B. E. H., Haynes, R. J. and Phillips, I. R. (2012) Cation and anion leaching and growth of Acacia saligna in bauxite residue sand amended with residue mud, poultry manure and phosphogypsum. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19 3: 835-846. doi:10.1007/s11356-011-0630-1


Author Jones, B. E. H.
Haynes, R. J.
Phillips, I. R.
Title Cation and anion leaching and growth of Acacia saligna in bauxite residue sand amended with residue mud, poultry manure and phosphogypsum
Formatted title
Cation and anion leaching and growth of Acacia saligna in bauxite residue sand amended with residue mud, poultry manure and phosphogypsum
Journal name Environmental Science and Pollution Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0944-1344
1614-7499
Publication date 2012-03-01
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11356-011-0630-1
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 19
Issue 3
Start page 835
End page 846
Total pages 12
Place of publication Heidelberg, Germany
Publisher Springer
Language eng
Abstract To examine (1) the effect of organic (poultry manure) and inorganic (residue mud and phosphogypsum) amendments on nutrient leaching losses from residue sand and (2) whether amendments improve the growth of plants in residue sand.

Leaching columns were established using residue sand. The phosphogypsum-treated surface layer (0-15 cm) was amended with poultry manure and/or bauxite residue mud and the subsurface layer (15-45 cm) was either left untreated or amended with phosphogypsum.

Much of the Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ was lost during the first four leachings. Additions of phosphogypsum to both surface and subsurface layers resulted in partial neutralization of soluble alkalinity. Mean pH of leachates ranged from 8.0 to 8.4, the major cation leached was Na⁺ and the major balancing anion was SO₄²⁻ . Where gypsum was not applied to the subsurface, mean pH of leachates was 10.0-10.9, the main cation leached was still Na⁺ and the main balancing anions were a combination of SO₄²⁻ and HCO₃⁻/CO₃²⁻. At the end of the experiment, concentrations of exchangeable Na⁺ in the subsurface layers were similar regardless of whether gypsum had been applied to that layer or not. Yields of Acacia saligna were promoted by additions of poultry manure to the surface layer but unaffected by gypsum incorporation into the subsurface layer.

Lack of reaction of phosphogypsum with the subsurface layer is unlikely to be a major factor limiting revegetation of residue sand since in the absence of phosphogypsum the excess Na⁺ leaches with the residual alkalinity (HCO₃⁻/CO₃²⁻) rather than SO₄²⁻.
Formatted abstract
Purpose To examine (1) the effect of organic (poultry manure) and inorganic (residue mud and phosphogypsum) amendments on nutrient leaching losses from residue sand and (2) whether amendments improve the growth of plants in residue sand.
Methods Leaching columns were established using residue sand. The phosphogypsum-treated surface layer (0–15 cm) was amended with poultry manure and/or bauxite residue mud and the subsurface layer (15–45 cm) was either left untreated or amended with phosphogypsum.
Results Much of the Na+, K+, Cl and SO42− was lost during the first four leachings. Additions of phosphogypsum to both surface and subsurface layers resulted in partial neutralization of soluble alkalinity. Mean pH of leachates ranged from 8.0 to 8.4, the major cation leached was Na+ and the major balancing anion was SO42−. Where gypsum was not applied to the subsurface, mean pH of leachates was 10.0–10.9, the main cation leached was still Na+ and the main balancing anions were a combination of SO42− and HCO3/CO32−. At the end of the experiment, concentrations of exchangeable Na+ in the subsurface layers were similar regardless of whether gypsum had been applied to that layer or not. Yields of Acacia saligna were promoted by additions of poultry manure to the surface layer but unaffected by gypsum incorporation into the subsurface layer.
Conclusions Lack of reaction of phosphogypsum with the subsurface layer is unlikely to be a major factor limiting revegetation of residue sand since in the absence of phosphogypsum the excess Na+ leaches with the residual alkalinity (HCO3/CO32−) rather than SO42−.
Keyword Bauxite processing sand
Poultry manure
Red mud
Revegetation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published online: 11 October 2011

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
Official 2013 Collection
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 7 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 8 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Tue, 29 May 2012, 09:26:52 EST by System User on behalf of School of Agriculture and Food Sciences