Significance of xenobiotic metabolism for bioaccumulation kinetics of organic chemicals in Gammarus pulex

Ashauer, Roman, Hintermeister, Anita, O'Connor, Isabel, Elumelu, Maline, Hollender, Juliane and Escher, Beate I. (2012) Significance of xenobiotic metabolism for bioaccumulation kinetics of organic chemicals in Gammarus pulex. Environmental Science and Technology, 46 6: 3498-3508. doi:10.1021/es204611h


Author Ashauer, Roman
Hintermeister, Anita
O'Connor, Isabel
Elumelu, Maline
Hollender, Juliane
Escher, Beate I.
Title Significance of xenobiotic metabolism for bioaccumulation kinetics of organic chemicals in Gammarus pulex
Journal name Environmental Science and Technology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0013-936X
1520-5851
Publication date 2012-03-01
Year available 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1021/es204611h
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 46
Issue 6
Start page 3498
End page 3508
Total pages 11
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher American Chemical Society
Language eng
Subject 1600 Chemistry
2304 Environmental Chemistry
Abstract Bioaccumulation and biotransformation are key toxicokinetic processes that modify toxicity of chemicals and sensitivity of organisms. Bioaccumulation kinetics vary greatly among organisms and chemicals; thus, we investigated the influence of biotransformation kinetics on bioaccumulation in a model aquatic invertebrate using fifteen C-14-labeled organic xenobiotics from diverse chemical classes and physicochemical properties (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, ethylacrylate, malathion, chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, carbofuran, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, 4-nitrobenzyl-chloride, 2,4-dichloroaniline, and sea-nine (4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-3-isothiazolone)). We detected and identified metabolites using HPLC with UV and radio-detection as well as high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap). Kinetics of uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of parent compounds and metabolites were modeled with a first-order one-compartment model. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated for parent compounds and metabolite enrichment factors for metabolites. Out of 19 detected metabolites, we identified seven by standards or accurate mass measurements and two via pathway analysis and analogies to other compounds. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol were not biotransformed. Dietary uptake contributed little to overall uptake. Differentiation between parent and metabolites increased accuracy of bioaccumulation parameters compared to total C-14 measurements. Biotransformation dominated toxicokinetics and strongly affected internal concentrations of parent compounds and metabolites. Many metabolites reached higher internal concentrations than their parents, characterized by large metabolite enrichment factors.
Formatted abstract
Bioaccumulation and biotransformation are key toxicokinetic processes that modify toxicity of chemicals and sensitivity of organisms. Bioaccumulation kinetics vary greatly among organisms and chemicals; thus, we investigated the influence of biotransformation kinetics on bioaccumulation in a model aquatic invertebrate using fifteen 14C-labeled organic xenobiotics from diverse chemical classes and physicochemical properties (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, ethylacrylate, malathion, chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, carbofuran, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, 4-nitrobenzyl-chloride, 2,4-dichloroaniline, and sea-nine (4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-3-isothiazolone)). We detected and identified metabolites using HPLC with UV and radio-detection as well as high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap). Kinetics of uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of parent compounds and metabolites were modeled with a first-order one-compartment model. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated for parent compounds and metabolite enrichment factors for metabolites. Out of 19 detected metabolites, we identified seven by standards or accurate mass  measurements and two via pathway analysis and analogies to other compounds. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene, imidacloprid, and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol were not biotransformed. Dietary uptake contributed little to overall uptake. Differentiation between parent and metabolites increased accuracy of bioaccumulation parameters compared to total 14C measurements. Biotransformation dominated toxicokinetics and strongly affected internal concentrations of parent compounds and metabolites. Many metabolites reached higher internal concentrations than their parents, characterized by large metabolite enrichment factors.
Keyword Daphnia Magna
Aquatic Ecotoxicology
Water Quality
Life Stage
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID 200021-119795
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Created: Mon, 16 Apr 2012, 23:06:43 EST by System User on behalf of National Res Centre For Environmental Toxicology