Combined high-resolution genotyping and geospatial analysis reveals modes of endemic urban typhoid fever transmission

Baker, Stephen, Holt, Kathryn, Clements, Archie C. A., Karkey, Abhilasha, Arjyal, Amit, Boni, Maciej F., Dongol, Sabina, Hammond, Naomi, Koirala, Samir, Duy, Pham Thanh, Nga, Tran Vu Thieu, Campbell, James I., Dolecek, Christiane, Basnyat, Buddha, Dougan, Gordon and Farrar, Jeremy J. (2011) Combined high-resolution genotyping and geospatial analysis reveals modes of endemic urban typhoid fever transmission. Open Biology, 1 OCTOBER: 1-13. doi:10.1098/rsob.110008


Author Baker, Stephen
Holt, Kathryn
Clements, Archie C. A.
Karkey, Abhilasha
Arjyal, Amit
Boni, Maciej F.
Dongol, Sabina
Hammond, Naomi
Koirala, Samir
Duy, Pham Thanh
Nga, Tran Vu Thieu
Campbell, James I.
Dolecek, Christiane
Basnyat, Buddha
Dougan, Gordon
Farrar, Jeremy J.
Title Combined high-resolution genotyping and geospatial analysis reveals modes of endemic urban typhoid fever transmission
Language of Title eng
Journal name Open Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
Language of Journal Name eng
ISSN 2046-2441
Publication date 2011-10-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1098/rsob.110008
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 1
Issue OCTOBER
Start page 1
End page 13
Total pages 13
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher The Royal Society Publishing
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Abstract Typhoid is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, human-restricted bacteria that are transmitted faeco-orally. Salmonella Typhi and S. Paratyphi A are clonal, and their limited genetic diversity has precluded the identification of long-term transmission networks in areas with a high disease burden. To improve our understanding of typhoid transmission we have taken a novel approach, performing a longitudinal spatial case–control study for typhoid in Nepal, combining single- nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and case localization via global positioning. We show extensive clustering of typhoid occurring independent of population size and density. For the first time, we demonstrate an extensive range of genotypes existing within typhoid clusters, and even within individual households, including some resulting from clonal expansion. Furthermore, although the data provide evidence for direct human-to-human transmission, we demonstrate an overwhelming contribution of indirect transmission, potentially via contaminated water. Consistent with this, we detected S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A in water supplies and found that typhoid was spatially associated with public water sources and low elevation. These findings have implications for typhoid-control strategies, and our innovative approach may be applied to other diseases caused by other monophyletic or emerging pathogens.
Keyword Salmonella
Typhoid
Paratyphoid
Genotyping
Transmission
Geospatial
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
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Created: Thu, 08 Mar 2012, 00:55:41 EST by Geraldine Fitzgerald on behalf of School of Public Health