A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease

Gast, G. C. M., de Roos, N. M., Sluijs, I., Bots, M. L., Beulens, J. W. J., Geleijnse, J. M., Witteman, J. C., Grobbee, DE, Peeters, P. H. M. and van der Schouw, Y. T. (2009) A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 19 7: 504-510. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2008.10.004

Author Gast, G. C. M.
de Roos, N. M.
Sluijs, I.
Bots, M. L.
Beulens, J. W. J.
Geleijnse, J. M.
Witteman, J. C.
Grobbee, DE
Peeters, P. H. M.
van der Schouw, Y. T.
Title A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease
Journal name Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0939-4753
Publication date 2009-09-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.numecd.2008.10.004
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 19
Issue 7
Start page 504
End page 510
Total pages 7
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Elsevier
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background and Aim: Vitamin K dependent proteins have been demonstrated to inhibit vascular calcification. Data on the effect of vitamin K intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, however, are scarce.
To examine the relationship between dietary vitamins K1 and K2 intake, and its subtypes, and the incidence of CHD.
Methods and Results: We used data from the Prospect–EPIC cohort consisting of 16,057 women, enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and aged 49–70 years, who were free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Intake of vitamin K and other nutrients was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse the data.
After a mean ± SD follow-up of 8.1 ± 1.6 years, we identified 480 incident cases of CHD. Mean vitamin K1 intake was 211.7 ± 100.3 μg/d and vitamin K2 intake was 29.1 ± 12.8 μg/d. After adjustment for traditional risk factors and dietary factors, we observed an inverse association between vitamin K2 and risk of CHD with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.91 [95% CI 0.85–1.00] per 10 μg/d vitamin K2 intake. This association was mainly due to vitamin K2 subtypes MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9. Vitamin K1 intake was not significantly related to CHD.
Conclusions: A high intake of menoquinones, especially MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9, could protect against CHD. However, more research is necessary to define optimal intake levels of vitamin K intake for the prevention of CHD.
Keyword Coronary heart disease
Food frequency questionnaire
Vitamin K
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: ERA 2012 Admin Only
School of Public Health Publications
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Created: Fri, 13 Jan 2012, 00:08:04 EST by Gerrie-Cor Herber-Gast on behalf of School of Public Health