Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms

Crisp, Michael D. and Cook, Lyn G. (2011) Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms. New Phytologist, 192 4: 997-1009. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03862.x


Author Crisp, Michael D.
Cook, Lyn G.
Title Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms
Journal name New Phytologist   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0028-646X
1469-8137
Publication date 2011-12-01
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03862.x
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 192
Issue 4
Start page 997
End page 1009
Total pages 13
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Formatted abstract
• We test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are ‘ancient’ and ‘living fossils’ by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow.
• We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock dating calibrated with 21 fossils, based on the phylogenetic analysis of alignments of matK chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences, and compared these with published estimates for angiosperms.
• Gymnosperm crown groups of Cenozoic age are significantly younger than their angiosperm counterparts (median age: 32 Ma vs 50 Ma) and have long unbranched stems, indicating major extinctions in the Cenozoic, in contrast with angiosperms. Surviving gymnosperm genera have diversified more slowly than angiosperms during the Neogene as a result of their higher extinction rate.
• Compared with angiosperms, living gymnosperm groups are not ancient. The fossil record also indicates that gymnosperms suffered major extinctions when climate changed in the Oligocene and Miocene. Extant gymnosperm groups occupy diverse habitats and some probably survived after making adaptive shifts.
Keyword Angiosperms
Diversification
Extinction
Fossil record
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID DP 0985473
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
 
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