Sintering of titanium in vacuum by microwave radiation

Luo, S. D., Yan, M., Schaffer, G. B. and Qian, M. (2011) Sintering of titanium in vacuum by microwave radiation. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 42 8: 2466-2474. doi:10.1007/s11661-011-0645-8

Author Luo, S. D.
Yan, M.
Schaffer, G. B.
Qian, M.
Title Sintering of titanium in vacuum by microwave radiation
Journal name Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1073-5623
Publication date 2011-08-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11661-011-0645-8
Volume 42
Issue 8
Start page 2466
End page 2474
Total pages 9
Place of publication New York, United States
Publisher Springer New York
Language eng
Abstract The effectiveness of microwave (MW) sintering has been demonstrated on many ceramic systems, a number of metallic systems, metal-ceramic composites, but remains ambiguous for Ti powder materials. This work presents a detailed comparative study of MW and conventional sintering of Ti powder compacts in vacuum. It is shown that MW radiation is effective in heating Ti powder compacts with the assistance of MW susceptors; it delivered an average heating rate of 34 K/min (34 °C/min), compared to 4 K/min (4 °C/min) by conventional vacuum heating in an alumina-tube furnace. Microwave radiation resulted in similar densification with well-developed sinter bonds. However, MW-sintered samples showed higher bulk hardness, a harder surface shell, coarser grains. The difference in hardness is attributed to the difference in the oxygen content, supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The mechanisms of MW heating for metal powder compacts are discussed in the context of the sintering of Ti powder materials and attributed to three combined effects. These include heat radiation from the MW susceptors at low temperatures, enhanced MW absorption due to the transformation of the TiO2 film on each Ti powder particle to oxygen-deficient Ti oxides, which are MW absorbers; and the volumetric heating of Ti powder particles by eddy currents.
Keyword XPS Characterization
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Mechanical & Mining Engineering Publications
Official 2012 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 20 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Tue, 18 Oct 2011, 18:21:59 EST by Dr Ming Yan on behalf of School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering