Vitamin D and the brain

Harms, Lauren R., Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl W. and McGrath, John J. (2011) Vitamin D and the brain. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 25 4: 657-669. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009


Author Harms, Lauren R.
Burne, Thomas H. J.
Eyles, Darryl W.
McGrath, John J.
Title Vitamin D and the brain
Journal name Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1521-690X
1532-1908
Publication date 2011-08-01
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 25
Issue 4
Start page 657
End page 669
Total pages 13
Editor R. Bouillon
Place of publication Kidlington, Oxford, U.K.
Publisher Bailliere Tindall
Language eng
Subject 1310 Endocrinology
2712 Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, can be considered as a neurosteroid. However, the cerebral expression of vitamin D-associated enzymes and receptors remains controversial. With the idea of carrying out a comparative study in mind, we compared the transcript expression of Cyp27a1, Cyp27b1, Cyp24a1, Vdr and Pdia3 in purified cultures of astrocytes, endothelial cells, microglia, neurons and oligodendrocytes. We observed that endothelial cells and neurons can possibly transform the inactive cholecalciferol into 25(OH)D3. It can then be metabolised into 1,25(OH)2D3, by neurons or microglia, before being transferred to astrocytes where it can bind to VDR and initiate gene transcription or be inactivated when in excess. Alternatively, 1,25(OH)2D3 can induce autocrine or paracrine rapid non-genomic actions via PDIA3 whose transcript is abundantly expressed in all cerebral cell types. Noticeably, brain endothelial cells appear as a singular subtype as they are potentially able to transform cholecalciferol into 25(OH)D3 and exhibit a variable expression of Pdia3, according to 1,25(OH)2D3 level. Altogether, our data indicate that, within the brain, vitamin D may trigger major auto-/paracrine non genomic actions, in addition to its well documented activities as a steroid hormone.
Formatted abstract
Vitamin D is a member of the superfamily of nuclear steroid transcription regulators and as such, exerts transcriptional control over a large number of genes. Several other steroids, such as thyroid hormones, vitamin A, androgens and the glucocorticoids, are known as ‘neurosteroids’ and their role in brain development and function is well defined. It has only been in the last decade or so that vitamin D has been thought to function as a neurosteroid. In this review we have collated a diverse array of data describing the presence of vitamin D metabolites and the receptor in the brain, the evidence that vitamin D may be an important modulator of brain development, and the potential role of vitamin D in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Keyword Vitamin D
Brain development
Schizophrenia
Neurosteroids
Animal models
D deficiency alters
Adult-rat brain
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 receptor immunoreactivity
Central-nervous-system
Multiple-sclerosis
Latent inhibition
Animal-model
Parkinsons-disease
Reverse transport
Nucleus-accumbens
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Special Issue: 'Vitamin D: Classical and Novel Actions". Published as Section 11.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2012 Collection
 
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