Independent and combined Effects of calcium-vitamin D-3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial

Kukuljan, Sonja, Nowson, Caryl A., Sanders, Kerrie M., Nicholson, Geoff C., Seibel, Markus J., Salmon, Jo and Daly, Robin M. (2011) Independent and combined Effects of calcium-vitamin D-3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96 4: 955-963. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2284


Author Kukuljan, Sonja
Nowson, Caryl A.
Sanders, Kerrie M.
Nicholson, Geoff C.
Seibel, Markus J.
Salmon, Jo
Daly, Robin M.
Title Independent and combined Effects of calcium-vitamin D-3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial
Journal name Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0021-972X
1945-7197
Publication date 2011-04-01
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1210/jc.2010-2284
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 96
Issue 4
Start page 955
End page 963
Total pages 9
Place of publication Chevy Chase, MD, United States
Publisher The Endocrine Society
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Context:
Exercise and calcium-vitamin D are independently recognized as important strategies to prevent osteoporosis, but their combined effects on bone strength and its determinants remain uncertain.

Objective:
To assess whether calcium-vitaminD 3 fortified milk could enhance the effects of exercise on bone strength, structure, and mineral density in middle-aged and older men.

Design, Setting, Participants:
An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial in which 180 men aged 50-79 years were randomized to the following: exercise = fortified milk; exercise; fortified milk; or controls. Exercise consisted of progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact activities performed 3 d/week. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 ml/d of1%fat milk containing 1000 mg/d calcium and 800 IU/d vitamin D 3 .

Main Outcome Measures:
Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and strength at the lumbar spine (LS), proximal femur, mid-femur, and mid-tibia measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and/or quantitative computed tomography.

Results:

There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Main effect analysis showed that exercise led to a 2.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.5-3.6) net gain in femoral neck section modulus, which was associated with an approximately 1.9% gain in areal BMD and cross-sectional area. Exercise also improved LS trabecular BMD [net gain 2.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.2- 4.1)], but had no effect on mid-femur or mid-tibia BMD, structure, or strength. There were no main effects of the fortified milk at any skeletal site.

Conclusion:

A community-based multi-component exercise program successfully improved LS and femoral neckBMDand strength in healthy older men, but providing additional calcium-vitaminD 3 to these replete men did not enhance the osteogenic response.
Keyword Postmenopausal Women
Physical-Activity
Mineral Density
D Supplementation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID ID 425849
Institutional Status Non-UQ
Additional Notes Published online before print5 January 2011.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Non HERDC
School of Medicine Publications
 
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