The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample

Crawford, John R. and Henry, Julie D. (2004) The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43 3: 245-265. doi:10.1348/0144665031752934


Author Crawford, John R.
Henry, Julie D.
Title The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample
Journal name British Journal of Clinical Psychology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0144-6657
2044-8260
Publication date 2004-09-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1348/0144665031752934
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 43
Issue 3
Start page 245
End page 265
Total pages 21
Place of publication Leicester, United Kingdom
Publisher John Wiley and Sons
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data.

Design: Cross-sectional and correlational.

Method: The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Regression and correlational analysis were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on PANAS scores as well as the relationship between the PANAS with measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the DASS).

Results: The best-fitting model (robust comparative fit index = .94) of the latent structure of the PANAS consisted of two correlated factors corresponding to the PA and NA scales, and permitted correlated error between items drawn from the same mood subcategories (Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Demographic variables had only very modest influences on PANAS scores and the PANAS exhibited measurement invariance across demographic subgroups. The reliability of the PANAS was high, and the pattern of relationships between the PANAS and the DASS and HADS were consistent with tripartite theory.

Conclusion: The PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, although the hypothesis of complete independence between PA and NA must be rejected. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of large-scale normative data.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown
Additional Notes First published in print September, 2004. Published online 24th December, 2010.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Psychology Publications
 
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Created: Mon, 18 Apr 2011, 23:23:18 EST by Lucy O'Brien on behalf of School of Psychology